First of all, let’s take a look at the differences between the geocentric and heliocentric models of the solar system. Simply put, the geocentric model suggests that the earth is the center of the universe and that everything else revolves around it. The heliocentric model, the model that is currently accepted by the majority, is that the earth is moving around the sun with the sun being stationary; all the while the earth spins on its own axis. It is important to note that both of these models are in fact theories. According to Cosmologist Fred Hoyle, “We know that the difference between a heliocentric theory and a geocentric theory is one of relative motion only, and that such a difference has no physical significance.”
The proposed flat earth map is one where the North Pole is at the very center, like the bulls-eye on a dart board. The Flat Earth Society suggests that it is Antarctica that is actually at the end of the earth and it is that which creates a huge barrier around the entire edge of the earth and believe that is why planes and people are not allowed there. Flat-earthers also believe that the sun rotates above the earth disc and moves to and from the North and South Poles, thus creating the seasons.
With the above in mind, flat-earthers contend that water is always level, that when it is not, or there is a compromise in what is level, the water will drain or move to the lowest point. If the earth were indeed a globe they ask why the water doesn’t move to the lowest point or move to the equatorial latitudes as that would be where the spin of the earth would produce the greatest force, yet this does not happen.
Furthermore, they question why with the dual motion of the earth spinning, the rotation of the earth around the sun, why no one ever seen or felt any movement. They use the pendulum and the Litmus test to prove their point. If you are not familiar with the Litmus test it utilizes a pendulum to prove the rotation of the earth. As the pendulum is set in motion, markings or pins on the ground show the movement of the earth beneath the pendulum as it swings knocking over pins as it goes. With the pendulum completing 360 degrees in a 24 hour period, flat-earthers question how the same isn’t true of a helicopter or balloon that goes up and hovers just above the earth, yet the earth never moves beneath it. It has been suggested that Newton’s law of motion explains how with his first law “an object in motion tends to stay in motion,” explains the lack of movement the hover effect. What that law doesn’t explain though is how airplanes and helicopters traveling don’t have to account for more time when going with the spin, and less when going against the spin, when they are in motion. These things are never accounted for.
Then there is the question of a flat horizon and the missing visible curvature of the earth. The horizon appears flat, yet objects are commonly seen at distances much farther away than allowed for by calculating the curvature of the earth, far enough away they should be hidden by the horizon due to the curve. When estimating how far one can see into the distance, the math is simple because the earth curves at approximately 7.98 inches for every mile, to simplify let’s say 8” per mile, 16.6 feet at 5 miles, and 266 feet at a distance of 20 miles. Then one needs to involve Pathagorus and his theorem to account for your own height and the height of the object being observed, which if you are anything like me find an online calculator, and a good one can be found here. Yet, in photo after photo images show that we can see much further and that either the formula or the curvature are in error.
Then there is the North Pole always pointing to Polaris in time elapsed photography, Polaris never moves, not even an inch. The stars do indeed appear to rotate around Polaris. The flat-earthers question is, if we were in fact hurling around the sun at some 67,000 miles per hour, completing a full orbit every 365 days, why is that we don’t we see any deviation from Polaris in the night sky, ever; unless Polaris is moving with us around the sun.
One of the biggest concerns flat-earthers have is that there are no genuine photographs of our earth, absolutely none. Apollo 11 footage has been repeatedly questioned for authenticity, and justifiably so. The footage from Apollo 11 has been the textbook standard image of the “earth” that has been used up until 2002, and then a new composite image was produced using Photoshop by NASA’s very own Robert Simmons. He is affectionately known as “Mr. Blue Marble,” because he created our most recent “earth” using complied composite images and using Photoshop he created the image we know today as “earth.” All of the photographs of earth are, in fact, composite art work that has been Photoshopped, there are no photos of earth that have not been significantly doctored in some way. Many images of the curvature of the earth have been taken through an image distorting lens called a “fisheye” lens. This concerns many who believe in the flat earth theory as they not only question the validity of the Photoshopped photos, they wonder…..what all we don’t really know or are not being told.