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The Origins of Vaccines Will Shock You!
|Vaccination—Vatican’s Medical Inquisition Revealed at Last!!|
Vaccination came from the Vatican via Great Britain at the exact same time as Darwins “Evilution of Species”. Coincindence?
Definition of terms for this exposé. Vaccination and inoculation are often used interchangeably today.
|Immunization: To be immune from catching a certain disease e.g., childhood measles makes a person immune from catching measles for the rest of his/her life.||Vaccination: Injection of diseased matter of cows, calves, monkeys, pigs or other animals into the human bloodstream in order to make one immune from human diseases like smallpox.||Inoculation: The practice of injecting a human disease like smallpox into the bloodstream in order to make a person immune from catching smallpox.|
|Variolae: Medieval Latin or scientific name for SMALLPOX – an exclusively HUMAN disease which is caused by the bite of a blood-sucking insect named Cimex Lectularius or the bedbug.||Vaccine: From the Latin word for COW. Name that was given to cowpox that Jenner injected into humans in order to make them immune from smallpox.||Cowpox: A disease of cows’ udders which is caused by milking cows with dirty or cut hands.|
|Vacca is the Latin word for cow.||A calf is a young cow or bull. Lymph (poison) for vaccines comes from calves.||A bull is a male cow.|
Medicine man Edward Jenner was the father of modern vaccination!!
Edward Jenner—a quack doctor— was the father of the filthy practice of vaccination:
|Edward Jenner S.J. (1749 —1823).||Edward Jenner was an S.J. — a Slick Jesuit — who taught the medical world how to use the POISONED NEEDLE. He was the first to associate human diseases with that of animals. This idea paved the way for vaccination which is responsible for the deaths of multiplied millions of people around the world. The idea that humans and animals are related and share the same diseases led to the theory of evilution which is responsible for the spiritual death of multiplied millions more.In the countryside in Gloustershire, England, where Jenner lived, the farmers had a legend or superstition that catching cowpox (a disease of cows which was transferred to the cows’ udders by unwashed or bleeding hands) would act like a charm or amulet to make them immune from catching the human disease of smallpox. Medicine man Jenner took this local legend or old wives’ tale and turned it into a scientific FACT. He did this by first getting some scientific credentials (M.D., F.R.S. – Fellow of the Royal Society). Next he wrote a book and on the title page only he used the term VARIOLAE VACCINAE. This means in Medieval Latin: smallpox of the cow. Thus associating a human disease with a disease of the cow. There never was such a disease as smallpox of the cow until “Dr.” Jenner invented it for the title of his book.|
Jenner invented a new disease—VARIOLAE VACCINAE—smallpox of the cow!!
Must Read! Full Jesuit Blood Oath (source)
To fully understand the origins of vaccines, one must be versed in Jesuit Conspiracy and who the Jesuits really are, including the Black Pope and the first Jesuit Pope in 600 years, Pope Francis as well as their militarized army, the Knights of Malta, of which George H.W. Bush, Colin Powell, Michael Bloomberg, etc. are all members. This video will help to give you background as well as my links on their history.
It is a system which has conscripted vast human and material resources into the building of a tightly knit, highly efficient machine that combines military, diplomatic, intelligence, economic, scientific and political operations. Its preparations are concealed, not published. Its mistakes are buried not headlined. Its dissenters are silenced, not praised. No expenditure is questioned, no rumor is printed, no secret is revealed.” – John F. Kennedy’s secret society speech on April 27, 1961
‘A conspiracy is rarely, if ever, proved by positive testimony. When a crime of high magnitude is about to be perpetrated by a combination of individuals, they do not act openly, but covertly and secretly. The purpose formed is known only to those who enter into it. Unless one of the original conspirators betray his companions and give evidence against them, their guilt can be proved only by circumstantial evidence…and circumstances can not lie.’ [Special Judge Advocate John A. Bingham, quoted in The Trial Of The Conspirators, Washington, 1865]
The Assassinated Lincoln As Well (source)
Knowing that President Kennedy was not going to escalate the Vietnam War, the Intelligence Community began to prepare for his assassination. Roman Catholic Lee Oswald was chosen to be a patsy…. As a CIA agent, he had been sent to Soviet Russia by Allen Dulles in 1959, supposedly as a defector. Knowing that the CIA (OSS) and the KGB (NKVD) had worked together during WW-II, Oswald apparently took a vacation for nearly two years. During that time he married a Russian whose uncle was a Colonel in the KGB.
“I know the Jesuits never forget nor forsake. But man must not care how and where he dies, provided he dies at the post of honor and duty.” ~Abraham Lincoln (“50 Years in the ‘church’ of Rome” by Charles Chiniquy pg. 472).
When he returned to the American Empire in 1962, he associated with CIA agents Howard Hunt, Frank Sturgis, David Ferrie, Guy Banister, Count George DeMohrenschildt, and Clay Shaw. Oswald was CIA, and related to a Jesuit. Emannuel Josephson tells us:
‘An interesting angle is presented by the Lee Oswald involvement. His cousin is reported to be a Jesuit priest. And it is a matter of record that Lee Oswald was invited to address the Jesuit college in Springhill, Alabama, on the subject of his activities, two weeks before the Kennedy Assassination. The Jesuit involvement closely parallels that in the Lincoln Assassination.’ [The Federal Reserve Conspiracy And Rockefellers, Emanuel M. Josephson, 1968]
And who was the Director of the CIA in 1963? It was Knight of Malta John McCone. Prior to that McCone had been a defense contractor who had formally headed the Atomic Energy Commission. Later in 1970, he was a board member of ITT while remaining a CIA consultant. Marchetti tells us: Continue reading
Chronology of 500 Year Jesuit Deception and Flat Earth
Jesuits were often highly trained in languages and the sciences and were expected to use their technical knowledge, especially in the realm of astronomy, to win over rulers and elites around the world and convince them, by extension, of the superiority of the Catholic message.
By 1750, 30 of the world’s 130 astronomical observatories were run by Jesuit astronomers and 35 lunar craters have been named to honor Jesuit scientists.
When Flat Round Earth Got Dropped from Scientific Inquiry
Up until the Jesuit Order was created in 1540, the most common school of thought in regards to Cosmology was that the Earth was Flat and Round, as had been the teachings for 5,000 years.
Once the Jesuits gained power around the world, the instilled the global ball Earth theory called Heliocentrism, step by step by step until after just a few generations, everyone on Earth KNEW the Earth was traveling around the Sun at incredible speeds.
It began with changing the conversation from one of a Flat Earth and Geocentered to just a debate as to whether we spun around the Sun or the Sun moved around us, completely eliminating the entire Flat Earth theory.
Flat Earth theory is never brought up in history lessons, or astronomy classes or by any supossed learned institutions. In fact, it wasn’t until one year ago when “Flat Earth Conspiracy” by Eric Dubay was introduced to the public.
Over the past 150 years several courageous Men and Women tried to educate the masses to the great fraud perp’d so expertly, over so long, by the Jesuits, yet know the cat is out of the bag and the truth is available for all to learn.
Here is a chronology of how Jesuits have been involved in every step of the way of deceiving all to believe we are just a small tiny insignificant blip in a massive universe vis-a-vis a Earth centered Universe where we are the Biggest Show in the Universe and of most importance.
Geocentrism vs. Heliocentrism and no longer discussion of Flat Earth Theory
When Jesuit astronomer, Giovanni Battista Riccioli published his Almagestrum Novum or “New Almagest” the title alone suggested the boldness of the project. This was to be a new and updated take on Ptolemy’s Almagest. The book offered new insight into the state of thought about the cosmos in 17th century Europe.
The frontispiece to Riccioli’s Almagestrum Novum tells his perspective on the state of astronomy in 1651. Urania, the winged muse of astronomy, holds up a scale with two competing models, a sun centered Copernican model, and the Tychonic geocentric model. The Ptolemaic model sits discarded in the bottom right corner of the scene. On the right, 100 eyed Argus points at cherubs in the upper right corner of the illustration.
The Cherubs hold recent observational discoveries; the moons of Jupiter, a detailed mountainous moon and the rings of Saturn. Under God’s hand from the top of the image, the scale reports the Tychonic model to be heavier and thus the winner.
Some of the most interesting details in this illustration are tucked away in the corners. In the upper right corner, among the clouds, are small representations of additional solar systems. Beyond the central diagram, the mapmaker shows the concept of the plurality of worlds. Each of these little sets of circles represents its own solar system with a star and planets. This image directly draws on the literary author, de Fontenelle, who building on the ideas of Newton and Descartes’, explored the significance of living in a universe with a plurality of worlds each orbiting their own stars.
Riccioli leans on the authority of a number of contemporary and historical thinkers. He lists 38 different astronomers and thinkers, such as Aristotle, Ptolemy and others who believe the Earth to be the center of the universe. He compares them to the 16 astronomers, including Copernicus, Kepler, and Descartes, who favor a sun centered model.
There were three mathematical models to describe the movements of the heavens in 163
- The Aristotelian / Ptolemaic system, with everything orbiting around a stationary Earth, which had largely fallen out of favour following Galileo’s observations.
- The Tychonic system (developed by Tycho Brahe), in which the Earth was viewed as stationary, the Sun went around the Earth and everything else went around the Sun. After Galileo’s presentations in 1611, this became the favoured model of the Roman Catholic Church. Most Jesuit astronomers (such as Clavius) had adopted this system by 1620.
- The Copernican system, with a stationary Sun around which everything else revolved.
A statue of Nicolaus Copernicus erected 1973, 500 years after his birthday in front of the Jesuit college and a planetarium in Piotrkow Trybunalski, …
Among Catholics, Christoph Clavius (1537–1612) was the leading astronomer in the sixteenth century. A Jesuit himself, he incorporated astronomy into the Jesuit curriculum and was the principal scholar behind the creation of the Gregorian calendar. Like the Wittenberg astronomers, Clavius adopted Copernican mathematical models when he felt them superior, but he believed that Ptolemy’s cosmology — both his ordering of the planets and his use of the equant — was correct.
Pope Clement VII (r. 1523–1534) had reacted favorably to a talk about Copernicus’s theories, rewarding the speaker with a rare manuscript. There is no indication of how Pope Paul III, to whom On the Revolutions was dedicated reacted; however, a trusted advisor, Bartolomeo Spina of Pisa (1474–1546) intended to condemn it but fell ill and died before his plan was carried out (see Rosen, 1975). Thus, in 1600 there was no official Catholic position on the Copernican system, and it was certainly not a heresy.
After disagreements with the new Danish king Christian IV in 1597, he was invited by the Bohemian king and Holy Roman emperor Rudolph II to Prague, where he became the official imperial astronomer. He built the new observatory at Benátky nad Jizerou. There, from 1600 until his death in 1601, he was assisted by Johannes Kepler who later used Tycho’s astronomical data to develop his three laws of planetary motion.
Some acceptance of the Tychonic system persisted through the 17th century and in places until the early 18th century; it was supported (after a 1633 decree about the Copernican controversy) by “a flood of pro-Tycho literature” of Jesuit origin.
Among pro-Tycho Jesuits, Ignace Pardies declared in 1691 that it was still the commonly accepted system, and Francesco Blanchinus reiterated that as late as 1728. Persistence of the Tychonic system, especially in Catholic countries, has been attributed to its satisfaction of a need (relative to Catholic doctrine) for “a safe synthesis of ancient and modern”.
“The laws of nature are written by the hand of God in the language of mathematics.” – Galileo Galilei (Il Saggiatore, 1623)
Initially a beneficiary of church patronage of astronomy, Galileo rose to prominence with the publication of Sidereus Nuncius, which comprised astronomical observations made possible by the 1608 invention of the telescope. He was feted in Rome, honoured by the Jesuits of the Roman College and received by Pope Paul V and church dignitaries
In 1611 Galileo travelled to Rome to present his findings, and was greeted with great acclaim. He demonstrated his observations of Jupiter to Christopher Clavius, a Jesuit at the Collegio Romano and the most respected astronomer in Europe at the time, who confirmed Galileo’s observations and parts of his theses of planetary motion. He was monumentally arrogant, belligerent and abrasive towards any who opposed him.
Controversial Questions’ (don’t you just love that title?), wrote a letter to Galileo in April 1615 outlining the Church’s official position. He pointed out that Copernican theory was perfectly acceptable as a working hypothesis, and if there were proof that the earth circles around the sun, “then we should have to proceed with great circumspection in explaining passages of Scripture which appear to teach the contrary.”
Galileo had no astronomical proof to offer, partly because his own observations did not align properly with his theory. Instead, Galileo proposed as proof a flawed and unconvincing theory that the tides were evidence of the Earth’s rotation (and, incidentally, specifically denying that lunar attraction was involved). In 1616 the Church ordered him to cease and desist his public advocacy of the unproven theory.
n 1623 his friend and supporter Maffeo Barberini ascended to the papacy, and Galileo confidently re-entered the public fray. In the same year he published Il Saggiatore (‘The Assayer’), in which he launched a vicious assault on a treatise on comets by Orazio Grassi, a Jesuit mathematician at the Collegio Romano. Grassi used observations of parallax to argue that comets are further away than the moon; Galileo ridiculed this idea and claimed instead that comets are an optical illusion. His factual error notwithstanding, the harshness of Galileo’s tone permanently soured his relations with the Jesuit order. Pope Urban VIII thoroughly enjoyed the rhetorical flourishes of Galileo’s prose, however, and composed a poem in his honour.
The Jesuits at the Roman College undoubtedly followed Aristotle in philosophy and Ptolemy in astronomy, at least for didactic purposes.
Orazio Grassi, S.J. (1 May 1583 – 23 July 1654), was an Italian Jesuit priest, who is best noted as a mathematician, astronomer and architect. He was one of the authors in controversy with Galileo Galilei on the nature of comets
Giovanni Battista Riccioli (17 April 1598 – 25 June 1671) was an Italian astronomer and a Catholic priest in the Jesuit order. He is known, among other things, for his experiments with pendulums and with falling bodies, for his discussion of 126 arguments concerning the motion of the Earth, and for introducing the current scheme of lunar nomenclature.
Other 17th Century Jesuit Astronomers:
- Matteo Ricci (1552–1610), Italian mathematician, translator, and noted for his importance to the Jesuit China missions.
- Christopher Clavius (1538–1612), German mathematician and astronomer, most noted in connection with the Gregorian calendar, but also his arithmetic books were used by many mathematicians including Leibniz and Descartes.
- François d’Aguilon (1567-1617), Belgian mathematician and physicist who worked on optics.
- Giuseppe Biancani (1566-1624), Italian astronomer and selenographer who wrote Sphaera mundi, seu cosmographia demonstrativa, ac facili methodo tradita.
- Wenceslas Pantaleon Kirwitzer (1588-1626), Czech astronomer and missionary to China.
- Charles Malapert (1581-1630), Belgian astronomer known for observing the stars of the southern sky and being against Copernicus.
- Christoforo Borri (1583–1632), Italian mathematician and astronomy who made observations on the magnetic variation of the compass.
- Christoph Grienberger (1561-1636), Austrian astronomer and mathematician.
- Giovanni Battista Zupi (c.1590-1650), Italian astronomer who discovered that Mercury had orbital phases.
- Alexius Sylvius Polonus (1593-c.1653), Polish astronomer.
- Johann Baptist Cysat (1587-1657), Swiss mathematician and astronomer, who did important research on comets and the Orion nebula.
- Mario Bettinus (1582-1657), Italian mathematician and astronomer..
- André Tacquet (1612-1660), Flemish mathematician whose work prepared the ground for the eventual discovery of calculus.
- Francesco Maria Grimaldi 1618-1663), Italian physicist, who coined the word ‘diffraction’ and used instruments to measure geological features on the Moon.
- Niccolo Zucchi (1586-1670), Italian astronomer known for his study of Jupiter and work on telescope design.
- Giovanni Battista Riccioli (1598-1671), Italian astronomer who was the first to note that Mizar was a “double star.”
- Albert Curtz (1600-1671), German astronomer.
- Jacques de Billy (1602-1679), French mathematician who wrote on number theory and astronomy.
- Athanasius Kircher (1601-1680), German who in his Scrutinium Pestis of 1658 he noted the presence of “little worms” or “animalcules” in the blood, and concluded that the disease was caused by micro-organisms. This is antecedent to germ theory.
Rene Descartes laid the foundation for 17th-century continental rationalism, later advocated by Baruch Spinoza and Gottfried Leibniz, and opposed by the empiricist school of thought consisting of Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume. Leibniz, Spinoza and Descartes were all well versed in mathematics as well as philosophy, and Descartes and Leibniz contributed greatly to science as well.
Jean- Fran Fouquet was born in Vézelay in a wealthy family. He studied at Lycée Louis le Grand in Paris. In 1681 he entered the order of the Jesuits. Four years later he taught mathematics. In 1693 he became a priest and in the following year he decided he wanted to volunteer in Asia. In 1699 he arrived in Amoy. Until 1711 he worked in Fujian and Jiangxi, then he was invited to Peking, to teach math and astronomy.
Jean-Félix Picard (21 July 1620 – 12 July 1682) was a French astronomer and priest born in La Flèche, where he studied at the Jesuit Collège Royal Henry-Le-Grand. . He was the first person to measure the size of the Earth to a reasonable degree of accuracy in a survey conducted in 1669–70, for which he is honored with a pyramid at Juvisy-sur-Orge.
Jesuit Astronomers with Chinese Scholars in the 18th Century
The Jesuit China missions of the 16th and 17th centuries introduced Western science and astronomy, then undergoing its own revolution, to China. One modern historian writes that in late Ming courts, the Jesuits were “regarded as impressive especially for their knowledge of astronomy, calendar-making, mathematics, hydraulics, and geography.”
The Society of Jesus introduced, according to Thomas Woods, “a substantial body of scientific knowledge and a vast array of mental tools for understanding the physical universe, including the Euclidean geometry that made planetary motion comprehensible.” Another expert quoted by Woods said the scientific revolution brought by the Jesuits coincided with a time when science was at a very low level in China.
On 8 June 1723, Fouquet was received by Pope Innocent XIII. Fouquet met another Chinese in Rome, who offered him help with translating. In 1725 he was appointed as bishop of Eleutheropolis in Palestine.
Johannes Kepler December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer. A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution, he is best known for his laws of planetary motion, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. These works also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton‘s theory of universal gravitation.
Modern refracting telescopes are based on a design proposed by Johannes Kepler in 1611 but first constructed by Father Christopher Scheiner some time between 1613 and 1617 (see Timeline of the Telescope).
Why did Scheiner build an astronomical telescope when other scientists of his day seemed quite content with the Galilean telescope? The answer may require looking past Scheiner to his order, the Jesuits. Scheiner’s unorthodoxy regarding telescope construction, use and theory was not out of place in the Jesuits. Another Jesuit of Scheiner’s and Galileo’s time, Niccolo Zucchi, demonstrated that a telescopic effect could be achieved using a combination of parabolic mirrors and lenses instead of just lenses. This crude reflecting telescope was built more than 50 years before Newton’s famous telescope.
The Jesuits also have a connection with the spread of telescope technology beyond Europe. The first telescope in North America was a gift presented by the Jesuits in 1646 to Jean Bourdon, an engineer in New France (modern day Quebec) [_5_] . The first telescope in China was brought there by Johannes Schreck, another Jesuit, in 1621 (his trip from Europe started in 1618) [_6_] . The Jesuit Jean Richaud is wrongly thought to be the first to use telescopes for astronomical purposes in India.
Related and Relevant Sidebar:
The Vatican’s latest ….The L.U.C.I.F.E.R. Telescope
the dedication plaque of the VATT reads:
This new tower for studying the stars has been erected during the XV year of the reign of John Paul II on this peaceful site so fit for such studies, and it has been equipped with a new large mirror for detecting the faintest glimmers of light from distant objects. May whoever searches here night and day the far reaches of space use it joyfully with the help of God.
“It may be boldly asked where can the man be found, possessing the extraordinary gifts of Newton, who could suffer himself to be deluded by such a hocus-pocus, if he had not in the first instance willfully deceived himself; Only those who know the strength of self-deception, and the extent to which it sometimes trenches on dishonesty, are in a condition to explain the conduct of Newton and of Newton’s school.
To support his unnatural theory Newton heaps fiction upon fiction, seeking to dazzle where he cannot convince. In whatever way or manner may have occurred this business, I must still say that I curse this modern history theory of Cosmology, and hope that perchance there may appear, in due time, some young scientists of genius, who will pick up courage enough to upset this universally disseminated delirium of lunatics.”
“Along with the rest of the world I was convinced that all the colors are contained in the light; no one had ever told me anything different, and I had never found the least cause to doubt it, because I had no further interest in the subject…But how I was astonished, as I looked at a white wall through the prism, that it stayed white! That only where it came upon some darkened area, it showed some color, then at last, around the window sill all the colors shone… It didn’t take long before I knew here was something significant about color to be brought forth, and I spoke as through an instinct out loud, that the Newtonian teachings were false.” ~ Johannes Wolfgang Goethe (Source)
Isaac Newton’s Theory of Colors Worked Out With Jesuits of England
Sir Isaac Newton was also engaged in another exchange on his theory of colors with a circle of English Jesuits in Lige, perhaps the most revealing exchange of all. Although their objections were shallow, their contention that his experiments were mistaken lashed him into a fury. The correspondence dragged on until 1678, when a final shriek of rage from Newton, apparently accompanied by a complete nervous breakdown, was followed by silence.
Newton has been identified as a “Grand Master of the Priory of Sion” from 1691-1727 in documents by Pierre Plantard.
Newton was made President of the Royal Society in 1703 and an associate of the French Academie des Sciences. In his position at the Royal Society, Newton made an enemy of John Flamsteed, the Astronomer Royal, by prematurely publishing Flamsteed’s star catalogue.
…The researchers say that a little known school of scholars in southwest India discovered one of the founding principles of modern mathematics hundreds of years before Newton, a University of Manchester statement says.
Newton‘s supposed “law of gravity,” are what’s truly dubious. Heliocentrists cannot show us a single object massive enough that by virtue of its mass alone, causes other smaller masses to stick to or orbit it as they claim happens with the Sun, Moon, Earth, Stars and Planets. If you cannot give me a single practical example of “gravity” smaller than the Earth or the Sun, then it is merely heresay, not science! ~ Eric Dubay Flat Earth Conspiracy
Newton’s Major Body of Work Heavily Edited by Jesuits
“Newton’s Laws have been responsible for the discovery of planets, for the construction of safe bridges, roads and amusement park rides, for an understanding of the ocean’s tides, and for realistic computer animations and video games,” said Erlich, the Class of 2017 Associate Professor of Physics. “It would be difficult to overstate the importance of at least some of these things.”
After the first edition (hereafter referred to as Newton 1), two subsequent editions were published. The second edition (Newton 2) was published in 1713 and the third edition (Newton 3) in 1726. Then, just over a decade later, comes Newton 4, the so-called Jesuit edition, which was edited by two Minim friars. The Jesuit edition contains commentary that extends to roughly the same length as Newton’s text. The text for the Jesuit edition was, in fact, taken from the Newton 3 edition of the Principia—the last edition to be edited by Newton himself.(Source)
Newton Did Not discover Calculus but Passed on by Jesuits
Dr George Gheverghese Joseph from The University of Manchester says the ‘Kerala School’ identified the ‘infinite series’- one of the basic components of calculus – in about 1350.
The discovery is currently – and wrongly – attributed in books to Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibnitz at the end of the seventeenth centuries.
And there is strong circumstantial evidence that the Indians passed on their discoveries to mathematically knowledgeable Jesuit missionaries who visited India during the fifteenth century. (source)
Newton vs. Castel; Theory of Colors
t was in 1740 that Louis Bertrand Castel published a criticism of Newton’s spectral description of prismatic colour in which he observed that the colours of white light split by a prism depended on the distance from the prism, and that Newton was looking at a special case. It was an argument that Goethe later developed in his Theory of Colours
Roger Joseph Boscovich 18 May 1711 – 13 February 1787) was a Ragusan physicist, astronomer, mathematician, philosopher, diplomat, poet, theologian, Jesuit priest, and a polymath from the city of Dubrovnik in the Republic of Ragusa (modern-day Croatia), who studied and lived in Italy and France where he also published many of his works.
In 1744 he was ordained to the Roman Catholic priesthood
He produced a precursor of atomic theory and made many contributions to astronomy, including the first geometric procedure for determining the equator of a rotating planet from three observations of a surface feature and for computing the orbit of a planet from three observations of its position. In 1753 he also discovered the absence of atmosphere on the Moon.[4
Other Jesuit Astronomers of the 1700’s
- Valentin Stansel (1621 – 1705), Czech astronomer in Brazil, who discovered a comet, that after accurate positions were made via F. de Gottignies in Goa, became known as Estancel-Gottignies
- Paolo Casati (1617-1707), Italian scientist, notable in meteorology and speculation on Vacuums.
- Franz Reinzer (1661-1708), Austrian writer who wrote about comets, meteors, lightning, winds, fossils, metals, etc.
- Eusebio Kino (1645 – 1711) Trentino missionary, mathematician, cartographer and astronomer who drew maps based on his explorations first showing that California was not an island as then believed and who published an astronomical treatise in Mexico City based on his observations of the Kirsch Comet.
- Giuseppe Asclepi (1706-1776), Italian astronomer.
- Christian Mayer (1719-1783), Czech astronomer known for his pioneering study of binary stars.
- Roger Joseph Boscovich (1711–1787), an Ragusan Polymath famous for his atomic theory in part. Also for devising perhaps the first geometric procedure for determining the equator of a rotating planet from three observations of a surface feature and for computing the orbit of a planet from three observations of its position.
- João de Loureiro (1717–1791), Portuguese mathematician and botanist active in Cochinchina.
- Maximilian Hell (1720-1792), Hungarian director of the Vienna Observatory who wrote astronomy tables and observed the Transit of Venus.
- Ignacije Szentmartony (1718-1793), Croatian who ‘obtained the title of royal mathematician and astronomer’ and used his astronomical knowledge in mapping parts of Brazil.
Someday someone will write a pathology of experimental physics and bring to light all those swindles which subvert our reason, beguile our judgement and, what is worse, stand in the way of any practical progress. The phenomena must be freed once and for all from their grim torture chamber of empiricism, mechanism, and dogmatism; they must be brought before the jury of man’s common sense.— Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
The 1822 Treaty of Verona
(between Austria, France, Prussia and Russia) the Jesuits agreed to smash the US Constitution and suppress the freedom of the US. Their methods included destroying free speech, destroying and suppressing the press, universal censorship, sustaining the cooperation of the Pope and clergy to use religion to help keep nations in passive obedience and financing wars against countries with representative governments.
The monarchs who signed this treaty were ultimately deposed. Most of these families are very wealthy and may be more powerful today than when they sat upon thrones. They are known collectively as the Black Nobility. Privately these families refuse to recognize any right to rule except their own. The fact that this treaty was made long ago does not mean it is void. The treaty was placed in the Congressional Record on April 25, 1916 by Senator Owen.(source)
The threat under the secret treaty of Verona to suppress popular governments in the American Republics is the basis of the Monroe doctrine. This secret treaty sets forth clearly the conflict between monarchial government and popular government and the government of the few as against the government of the many.
The Holy Alliance made its powers felt by the wholesale drastic suppression of the press in Europe, by universal censorship, by killing free speech and all ideas of popular rights, and by the complete suppression of popular government.
The Holy Alliance having destroyed popular government in Spain and in Italy, had well-laid plans also to destroy popular government in the American colonies which had revolted from Spain and Portugal in Central and South America under the influence of the successful example of the United States.
It was because of this conspiracy against the American Republics by the European monarchies that the great English statesman, Canning, called the attention of our government to it, and our statesmen then, including Thomas Jefferson, took an active part to bring about the declaration by President Monroe in his next annual message to the Congress of the United States that the United States should regard it as an act of hostility to the government of the United States and an unfriendly act if this coalition or if any power of Europe ever undertook to establish upon the American Continent any control of any American Republic or to acquire any territorial rights.
This is the so-called Monroe doctrine.
Fr. Secchi was born in Reggio Emilia, where he studied at the Jesuit gymnasium. At the age of 16, he entered the Jesuit Order in Rome. He continued his studies at the Roman College, and demonstrated great scientific ability. In 1839, he was appointed tutor of mathematics and physics at the College. In 1841, he became Professor of Physics at the Jesuit College in Loreto. In 1844, he began theological studies in Rome, and was ordained a priest on 12 September 1847. In 1848, due to the Roman Revolution, the Jesuits had to leave Rome.
Fr. Secchi spent the next two years in the United Kingdom at Stonyhurst College, and the United States, where he taught for a time at Georgetown University in Washington, DC. He also took his doctoral examination in theology there.
Sidebar: Vastly Changing Distances to the Sun or How Wrong They’ve Been.Nicolas Copernicus estimated 3 million miles away
Johannes Kepler estimated 12 mill miles away
Isaac Newton, “it matters not if its 24 or 56 mill. miles away, science will find the answer.”
Distance Story 93 million miles away.
Royal Astronomical Society
The Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) is a learned society that began as the Astronomical Society of London in 1820 to support astronomical research (mainly carried on at the time by ‘gentleman astronomers‘ rather than professionals). It became the Royal Astronomical Society in 1831 on receiving its Royal Charter from William IV.
India gets Astronomy with help of Jesuits
G.V.Juggarow Observatory, established in 1840, was the earliest private modern Indian as-tronomical observatory that functioned till the turn of the twentieth century. Jesuit priest-astronomers were the real initiators of telescopic astronomy in India, particularly FatherJ.Richaud who carried out systematic observations of binary stars, comets, zodiacal light,dark clouds etc. at Pondicherry from 1689 (Rao et al 1984) http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1103/1103.5104.pdf
Other 19th Century Jesuit Astronomers
- Franz de Paula Triesnecker (1745-1817), Austrian astronomer.
- Angelo Secchi (1818-1878), Italian astronomer who discovered the existence of solar spicules and drew an early map of Mars.
- Benito Viñes (1837-1893), Spanish scientist who led the Bethlehem College Observatory in Havana and was known as “Father Hurricane” because of his research on hurricanes.
The “consensus” that Catholic faith is somehow opposed to science, and has stifled and restrained it, is a long-held bias based on prejudice and not evidence. At times in the history of science and faith, the truth has been just the other way around.
..” It was about the Belgian Jesuit priest, mathematician and physicist, Father Georges Lemaitre, originator of the Big Bang theory and the man who changed the mind of Albert Einstein on the true origin of the created Universe.
“The term “big bang” was coined by a bitter opponent of the theory: the English astronomer and physicist Fred Hoyle. In 1950, Hoyle gave a series of Saturday night radio talks for the BBC on “The Nature of the Universe.” Detesting the notion that the universe had a beginning, he held a different theory, according to which the universe is eternal. In his concluding talk, Hoyle, striving for a visual image of the theory he opposed, called it “this big bang idea.” The name gradually stuck, without any of the pejorative overtones Hoyle may have intended.” (Source)
At the very end of that post, there is a photograph of Father Lemaitre with Albert Einstein who once told Father Lemaitre in response to his theory about the Big Bang, “Your math is perfect, but your physics is abominable.”
Six years later, in 1933, Einstein declared that his own “Cosmological Constant” – his theory that the Universe always existed – was his greatest error, and he called Father Lemaitre’s work “the most beautiful and satisfactory explanation of creation I have ever heard.” For Einstein to use the “C” word – Creation – was a pivotal moment in modern science.
In 1941, he was elected member of the Royal Academy of Sciences and Arts of Belgium, and he received the very first Eddington Medal awarded by the Royal Astronomical Society in 1953.
The story of Fr. Lemaitre’s role in modern cosmology was often stifled by science because he was a Catholic priest.
In January 1933, Lemaître and Einstein, who had met on several occasions—in 1927 in Brussels, at the time of a Solvay Conference, in 1932 in Belgium, at the time of a cycle of conferences in Brussels and lastly in 1935 at Princeton—traveled together to the U.S. state of California for a series of seminars.
Newspapers around the world called him a famous Belgian scientist and described him as the leader of the new cosmological physics.
Origins of Man as Told by Jesuits
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881–1955), French palaeontologist and philosopher involved in the discovery of the so-called Peking Man. Teilhard was praised by Pope Benedict XVI, and he was also noted for his contributions to theology in Pope Francis‘ 2015 encyclical Laudato si’.
Beginning in 1887, U.S. scientist Albert Abraham Michelson began to do experiments to try and detect the motion of the earth around the sun by using the speed of light as a barometer. This experiment was called the Michelson-Morley experiment and was famous for one thing: ALL THE RESULTS WERE NEGATIVE.
After serving as professor at Clark University at Worcester, Massachusetts, from 1889 until 1892, Michelson was appointed professor and the first head of the department of physics at the newly organized University of Chicago. With his big salary from Rockefeller, and the Nobel Prize money, Michelson was content not to make WAVES about the non-motion of the earth.
In 1924, Michelson received a huge grant from the university in order to determine the ROTATION of the earth by using the speed of light. This test consisted of a mile long 12 inch tunnel with all the air removed. As expected, all the results were NEGATIVE.
By 1900, the proof of the non-motion of the earth did not cause Michelson to get on his knees and acknowledge that the Bible was correct after all. Had he and the “scientific” community done so, the whole evolutionary house of sand would have come crashing down. That is the last thing that the Jesuits wanted. Their answer was to use Albert Einstein to invent a completely new theory of the universe called RELATIVITY. So now the scene shifts from the U.S. to Switzerland and an obscure clerk in the Swiss Patent Office named Albert Einstein.
Einstein and Michelson at the Mount Wilson Observatory in 1931.
“Today’s scientists have substituted mathematics for experiments, and they wander off through equation after equation, and eventually build a structure which has no relation to reality.”
Modern day revisionist history: Communism was a curse invented by the Jesuits via their “Reduction” settlements in South America. They chose as their puppet German Jew Karl Marx while under their care in Trier. They used it to wage war against their hated enemies, the Romanovs, who had evicted the Jesuits in 1820. A Jesuit priest by the name of Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili was chosen from Georgia to turn Russia into a totalitarian nightmare. He would later change his name to Joseph Stalin.
They have carefully played both Russians and Americans against each other ever since, cashing in (literally) on the resulting bloodshed. They used their infiltrators and subversives in America to counter the Nazi-given technological advances with self-destructive leadership and policy decisions (e.g. Kennedy threatened resolution to Vietnam and was eliminated).
The Soviet Union collapsed, but rather than allow a new climate of peace and co-operation to ensue, tremendous discord has been instilled. Organs like the European Union and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization have been used to increase the “Strategy of Containment” dreamed up by Papal agents like Zbigniew Brzezinski—thought by Russian Intelligence to have been behind the election of Polish Cardinal Karol Józef Wojtyła to the Papacy to become “Pope John Paul II”.
A literal Crusade continues to target Orthodox Russia on her very doorstep utilizing a CIA/Nazi/Catholic influence in Slavic Ukraine, the birthplace of both nations. The Orthodox Church is heavily infiltrated with Jesuits and it is the Left Leg of the terrible statue the Prophet Daniel saw in Nebuchadnezzar’s dream, with Rome being the Right Leg. It is almost as hampered by humanistic and pagan religious traditions as Rome is. But through it, a mighty thing has happened; the good Russian people are living their Christian values and this does not sit well with the Luciferian Elite that runs and rules the West (through the Vatican).
Robert K. Massie, in his award-winning book Nicholas and Alexandra, described the St. Petersburg of the turn of the century: “It was the center of all that was advanced, all that was smart and much that was cynical in Russian life. Its great opera and ballet companies, its symphonies and chamber orchestras played the music of Glinka, Rimsky-Korsakov, Borodin, Mussorgsky, and Tschaikovsky; its citizens read Pushkin, Gogol, Dostoyevsky, Turgenev, and Tolstoy. But society spoke French, not Russian, and the best clothing and furniture were ordered from Paris…The ‘season’ in St. Petersburg began on New Year’s Day and lasted until the beginning of Lent.”
The White Cities of Russia
And the story goes..
The Seven Sisters aka ‘The Stalin’s High-Rises’) are a group of seven skyscrapers in Moscow designed in the Stalinist style. They were built from 1947 to 1953! in an elaborate combination of Russian Baroque and Gothic styles. These towers are inspired by the Municipal Building in Manhattan. At the time of construction they were the tallest buildings in Europe, and the main building of Moscow State University remained the tallest building in Europe until 1997.
Another Huge NWO Lie ~ The Transatlantic Slave Trade Out of Africa
So, the story goes…
Some 12.5 million Africans were taken from their homes and forced aboard slave ships that were destined for the New World. About 10.7 million people survived the horrors of the Middle Passage between 1526 and 1866, only to end up in bondage on sugar, rice, cotton, and tobacco plantations throughout the Americas and the Caribbean. The transatlantic slave trade is the largest forced migration in history.
Black people are indigenous to the Americas. Black Native Americans are not a result of the so called “red Indian” mixing with slaves. The so called “red Indian” comes from mixing with the European colonist and the Asians that were in America before Columbus. The first Native Americans were Mongolian Tartarians. Melville Herskovits, a European anthropologist, was one of the originators of the “Out of Africa Theory.” Herskovits never had any historical, archaeological, or anthropological proof that Black People of the Americas ever derived from West and North Africa.
Consequently, Herskovits crafted the theory that Blacks arrived in America from the transatlantic slave trade, which allegedly brought in more than 10 million African Slaves. According to the National Archives of Spain and Smithsonian Records, there was no evidence to prove 70 thousand ships with Black Africans ever sailed to the Americas. Melville carried out the teachings of his mentor Franz Boaz, to make the Original Copper Color Races of The Americas inferior, and the European presence superior. Before this time, Blacks coming from Africa through the Transatlantic Slave Trade story never existed.
As a result, Melville’s work has been fragmented and used as propaganda by writers like Harold Courlander and Alex Haley, which further perpetuated the myth of the Transatlantic Slave Trade through the hit movie “Roots.”
Americas were black people and they were not brought here on ships.
Instead, they were enslaved right here on their own lands. If they were brought on ships, the numbers are extremely exaggerated. It was published that 15,000,000 to 20,000,000 slaves arrived in the Americas between 1540 and 1850 over—a 310-year period (according to US History books). The Stewart Synopsis points out a few questions that should be examined:
- Over a period of 300 years, is it fair to say that 60,000 slaves were transported annually to the Americas or has the transportation of slaves to the Americas been one big myth?
- The largest seagoing vessel carried 400 slaves but not all of the ships were that large.
- Time of passage was 3 – 4 months. That means 200 vessels/ships per year would have to travel carrying 300 people. One ship could make 3 passages per year. The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database says there were 1100 – 1400 voyages made over that 300 year period. If that is the case and each ship carried 400 people, the total number would be 560,000 Africans were transported. It still does not add up.
- We already know that over 83% of all Americans with African ancestry have Native American blood.
- Did Native American tribes help slaves escape or were Americans with African ancestry already part of the Native American Nations?
After 20 years the Royal Adventurer–with its 15 ships had transported between 90,000 and 100,000 slaves. That is a long way from 15,000,000 to 20,000,000 slaves who were supposedly brought to the Americas. Doesn’t that leave a little over 14,000,000 to 19,000,000 people not accounted for—What’s up with that? Or is/was the Black/Brown birthrate that more accelerated than the White birthrate? The calculated median of 15 and 20 million would be 17.5 million. Divide it by 400 people—the largest slave vessels. That comes out to 43,750 trips. Can you show me a record where this many trips occurred, or the number of trips calculated by the so-called experts? (Figures exist of 27,000 – 35,000 voyages). The same thing happened with the holocaust in Germany during World War II. Six million people were supposedly killed, but there are not that many names referenced who died totaling six million. In fact, the official story has reduced the number to under 1 million people!
Stewart Synopsis lists these black Native tribes:
The Washitaw of the Louisiana/Midwest
The Yamasee of the South East
The Cherokee Indians
The Blackfoot Indians
The Pequot and Mohegans of Connecticut
The Black Californians (Calafians) (CAL in CALifornia literally means BLAK, after the name of the Great Mamma KALi / Queen KALifa)
The Olmecs of Mexico
The Darienite of Panama
4.25 million African Slaves Shipped to Brazil & Mexico ?
The story goes… Over the course of 300 years, from the 16th to the 19th centuries, the Brazil imported around four million slaves (some 40 percent of the total transatlantic slave trade). The overwhelming majority came from the former Portuguese colony of Angola, located on the Atlantic coast of southern Africa.
On July 9, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) named Valongo Wharf a World Heritage site, along with northwest England’s Lake District, the walled city of Ahmedabad in India and the sacred Japanese island of Okinoshima, which doesn’t allow women on its shores.
Of the new sites on the list, none has a darker past than Valongo Wharf. Built in 1811, the wharf functioned as South America’s leading slave port. It was here that as many as 900,000 enslaved African men, women and children were held before being sold on the Brazilian slave market. Those who didn’t survive the ordeal—who died during the transatlantic journey or sometime after arriving at the wharf—were buried in mass graves nearby.
Mexico claims African Slaves as well: A total of 186,766 Africans were imported into Mexico during the 300 years of the Spanish Slave Trade. Looking at the appearance of modern Mexicans, it becomes clear that the NOW just made up the numbers without any proof or evidence of the veracity of these claims. There is no way 186,766 thousand Black Skinned Mongols could be responsible for the “pigmented” side of well over a 100 million “Light and Dark Skinned” Mestizos.
The Great American Holocaust and the Jesuit “Reduction” Movement
By the end of the 16th century the Jesuits had already started a worldwide missionary enterprise which spanned India, Japan, China, the Congo, Mozambique and Angola to Brazil, Peru, Paraguay and central Mexico. The presence of the Jesuits in Latin America dates back to 1549, when the first missionaries arrived in Brazil along with the governor Tomé de Souza. Through the centuries Jesuits reached not only South and Central America but also Africa, Asia, North America and Canada, building churches, schools and hospitals, running farms and estates, but also, most importantly, proselytizing among native populations. Education and spiritual guidance have always been central to the Jesuit approach to evangelism.
David Edward Stannard (born 1941) is an American historian and Professor of American Studies at the University of Hawaii. He wrote “American Holocaust; The Conquest of the New World” in 1992. He chronicles that the genocide against the Native Black Moor population was the largest genocide in history. The extermination of the Black Moors went roaring across two continents non-stop for four centuries and consuming the lives of countless tens of millions of people. While acknowledging that the majority of the indigenous peoples fell victim to the ravages of European disease, he estimates that almost 100 million died in what he calls the American Holocaust.
After initial contact with the Jesuits, the story goes that small pox and other diseases brought over from Europe caused the deaths of 90 to 95% of the native population of the in the following 150 years.
Introduced at Veracruz by Cortez’s Spanish Army in 1520, smallpox ravaged Mexico in the 1520, possibly killing over 150,000 in Tenochtitlán (the heartland of the Aztec Empire) alone, and aiding in the victory of Hernán Cortés over the Aztec Empire at Tenochtitlan (present-day Mexico City) in 1521.
The Great Fire of New York of 1776 was a devastating fire that burned through the night of September 20, 1776, and into the morning of September 21, on the West Side of what then constituted New York City at the southern end of the island of Manhattan. It broke out in the early days of the military occupation of the city by British forces during the American Revolutionary War. The fire destroyed about 10 to 25 percent of the buildings in the city.
The 1835 Great Fire of New York was one of three fires that rendered extensive damage to New York City in the 18th and 19th centuries. The fire occurred in the middle of an economic boom, covering 17 city blocks, killing two people, and destroying hundreds of buildings. At the time of the fire, major water sources including the East River and the Hudson River were frozen in temperatures as low as −17 °F (−27 °C). Firefighters were forced to drill holes through ice to access water, which later re-froze around the hoses and pipes. Attempts were made to deprive the fire of fuel by demolishing surrounding buildings, but at first there was insufficient gunpowder in Manhattan. Later in the evening, U.S. Marines returned with gunpowder from the Brooklyn Navy Yard and began to blow up buildings in the fire’s path. An investigation found that a burst gas pipe, ignited by a coal stove, was the initial source; no blame was assigned. The fire covered 13 acres (53,000 m2) in 17 city blocks and destroyed between 530 and 700 buildings.
Throughout this book I have shown the many instances of Tartary control and mastery of the water, air and Earth. The technology we have today was also available to them, and more. We have seen millions and millions of bones buried under cities, and beautiful Tartarian buildings destroyed without trace. Fire could not bring down stone and iron, unless the buildings were already electrified and advanced technologies “flipped” the highly focused laser directed energy frequencies to bring down the buildings, like what took down the World Trade Centers. We can see patents from 1904 using energy to create electromagnetic rail guns and, certainly Directed Energy Weapons (DEW) were likely used as well.
Another question has to be asked, is what happened to the tons and tons of rubble that would have been accumulated, such as after the World Fairs. Again, fire is said to be the causal factors, yet like at the Chicago World Fair, the lands became a park as did the same after the San Francisco Pan-Pacific Exhibition of 1915, which is now the SF Marina and Chrissy Field, unless it was pulverized and then used as land fill and such.
Tartaria knew that his enemy was ruthless and terrible and for this they protected their cities throughout the world with immense Star Fortress and great walls. But it was defeated by energy weapons (DEW) and waves of 300 meters of glacial waters that swept the continents and submerged the fortresses. The enemy was stronger and could have simply destroyed the entire Earth. But he only wanted to exterminate billions of humans to take ownership of his lands, technology, fortunes, and palaces.
There is also hard evidence of DEW weapons patented in 1904. The oldest electromagnetic gun came in the form of the coilgun, the first of which was invented by Norwegian scientist Kristian Birkeland at the University of Kristiania (today Oslo). The invention was officially patented in 1904, although its development reportedly started as early as 1845. According to his accounts, Birkeland accelerated a 500-gram projectile to 110 mph;
The overall question is “Did the NWO take over Tartarian buildings and then use them to kill off the people of Tartary around the world after committing them to converted insane asylums. The evidence appears conclusively likely! Remember, that according to Mr. Fomenko, his-story does not begin until the beginnings of the elimination of Tartary in 1200 AD.
In London, England, the Priory of Saint Mary of Bethlehem, which later became known more notoriously as Bedlam, was founded in 1247. In Spain, other such institutions for the insane were established after the Christian Reconquista; facilities included hospitals in Valencia (1407), Zaragoza (1425), Seville (1436), Barcelona (1481) and Toledo (1483). In Britain at the beginning of the 19th century, there were, perhaps, a few thousand “lunatics” housed in a variety of disparate institutions; but, by the beginning of the 20th century, that figure had grown to about 100,000. This growth coincided with the development of alienism, now known as psychiatry, as a medical specialty.
By the end of the 19th century, national systems of regulated asylums for the mentally ill had been established in most industrialized countries. At the turn of the century, Britain and France combined had only a few hundred people in asylums, but by the end of the century this number had risen to the hundreds of thousands. The United States housed 150,000 patients in mental hospitals by 1904. Germany housed more than 400 public and private sector asylums. These asylums were critical to the evolution of psychiatry as they provided places of practice throughout the world.
Throughout the asylums worldwide we see familiar patterns of incredible Tartary architecture with many asylums having farms and livestock and cemeteries and crematories. Another main theme is most of these structures became “overcrowded” up through the beginnings of the 20th century, so more asylums were needed, yet the population numbers at the time do not justify the immense size of the buildings or number of people they claim were committed. In California, at the very onset of the California Gold Rus of 1849, we see several insane asylums said to be erected to house those deemed insane as early as 1851, even though California’s population in no way justified the immense size and scope of these structures.
The other blatantly obvious note is that these immense insane asylums nearly look identical all around the world in what they call “Gothic” and “Roman” architecture.
The Hospital de los Inocentes (Hospital of the Innocents) was the first asylum in Europe founded in Valencia, Spain in 1410 stands out due to its originality and there are historic and cultural reasons to recognize its primacy. Furthermore, the organization and functioning of this institution and the model, spread like wildfire through the entire Iberian Peninsula during the 15th Century and shortly after through American Spanish speaking countries. In 1512 the Council of the city of Valencia decided to unite all the hospitals of the city in one «Hospital General»and to extend the coverage to all kind of patients and all types of forsaken. The hospital was destroyed by a fire in 1545.
The Bethlem Royal Hospital Britain, England 1676
Bethlem Royal Hospital, also known as St Mary Bethlehem, Bethlehem Hospital and Bedlam, is a psychiatric hospital in London. Its famous history has inspired several horror books, films and TV series, most notably Bedlam, a 1946 film with Boris Karloff. The hospital is closely associated with King’s College London and, in partnership with the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, is a major centre for psychiatric research. Originally the hospital was near Bishopsgate just outside the walls of the City of London where the NWO bankers reside. Already in 1632 it was recorded that Bethlem Royal Hospital, London had “below stairs a parlor, a kitchen, two larders, a long entry throughout the house, and 21 rooms wherein the poor distracted people lie, and above the stairs eight rooms more for servants and the poor to lie in”.
St Luke’s Hospital for Lunatics was founded in London in 1751 for the treatment of incurable pauper lunatics by a group of philanthropic apothecaries and others. It was the second public institution in London created to look after mentally ill people, after the Hospital of St. Mary of Bethlem (Bedlam), founded in 1246.
The first orphan trains operated prior to the Civil War. Over 250,000 children were transported from New York to the Midwest over a 76-year period (1853-1929) in the largest mass migration of children in American history. As many as one in four were Irish. Some abolitionists feared that the orphan trains were being used as an extension of slavery, and there was reason behind their fear. Not all the orphans were being adopted. Many became slaves to farmers, child abusers and indentured servants with no rights or freedoms. The first Orphan Trains left Grand Central Station in late 1853 for Dowagiac, Michigan. The trains continued to run for 75 years. The last official train ran to Texas in 1929. Many children were sexually abused, mistreated, malnourished, and overworked in the Midwest farms. Trains would stop in midwestern and southern towns, and the children would file off and parade before the assembled townspeople, often on hastily constructed stages. Locals would inspect the children, feel their muscles, look at their teeth, and question them. Contact between the children and their families back east was strongly discouraged. Many of these children ran away from the abusive new homes they were placed in.
These abandoned children were left to their own devices to obtain shelter and food, often stealing, begging, selling matches and/or papers to support themselves. These children were labeled as “Street Arabs”, “the dangerous classes”, and ‘street urchins” to name a few. In the mid 1800’s and early 1900’s of the United States history, these problems escalated and led Charles Loring Brace, a minister in New York, to found The Children’s Aid Society in 1853 in New York City. A report in the New York Times dated May 10, 1860, cited the four distinct classes of needy they served: “First – Friendless and deserving young women. Second – Destitute children between the ages of 3 and 14 years. Third – Motherless and orphan infants. Fourth. – Dependent mothers with children who should not be separated.”
In the 1870s, the Catholic Church became concerned that many Catholic children were being sent to Protestant homes and were being inculcated with Protestant values. They began operating their own Placing Out program via the railroad sponsored by the New York Foundling Hospital. Priests in towns along the railroad routes were notified that the Foundling Hospital had children in need of homes. The priest would make an announcement at Sunday Mass and adults could sign up for a child, specifying gender and preferred hair and eye color. It was common to have children separated from their siblings, to not have birth certificates, and no further contact with their parents or siblings. In many cases the only legal document for the children would have been their baptismal certificate. By the age of 18, the children were released from their indenture and were expected to make their own way in life.
Foster Care Was Created to Harvest Children.
In the United States, foster care started as a result of the efforts of Charles Loring Brace. “In the mid-19th Century, some 30,000 homeless or neglected children lived in the New York City streets and slums. “Brace took these children off the streets and placed them with families in most states in the country. Brace believed the children would do best with a Christian farm family. He did this to save them from “a lifetime of suffering” He sent these children to families by train, which gave the name The Orphan Train Movement. “This lasted from 1853 to the early 1890s 1929? and transported more than 120,000 250,000? children to new lives.
“When Brace died in 1890, his sons took over his work of the Children’s Aid Society until they retired. The Children’s Aid Society created “a foster care approach that became the basis for the federal Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997” called Concurrent Planning. This greatly impacted the foster care system.