Lucas Valley map 1844? “Callinas”
Did you know that the Miwok sat and created beads and cooked their food, and buried their families, across the creek from Dixie Elementary School ?!?http://upperlucasvalleyhistory.blogspot.com/2008/05/miwoks-in-our-valley.html
The Native Americans who lived in what is now the Dixie School District as early as 1,500 BC,
and who may well have lived here for hundreds of years before that, were the Coast Miwok and their ancestors. Culturally they were similar to the Pomo Native Americans, their neighbors to the north; however, they spoke a different language. On January 7, 1855, Sister Corsina McKay, Donna Barbara, Miss Glover and four children arrived by boat from San Francisco
Before the houses east of Mt.Shasta were built, the view still looked much like that. You were unlikely to have found any remnants of Miwok habitants along the banks, after 1970 or so, as they dredged Miller creek several times, scarring the water shed permanently.We moved into our house on Mt. Shasta Dr. in 1962, and a few years later, my dad took me down to the area now paved over by Mt. Muir. “Sisco’s Meadow”. Along the creek there we found midden, charred bones and shells and several obsidian points. I still have them.
My name is Jim I lived in Lucas valley back in the 60s and I believe I was the one who found the first skeleton remains across form Dixie school known as site mrn-403 I ran across old photos of Dr Slaymaker? My name is Mark and I lived in the valley during the 60’s. I remember the blackberries on the creek banks behind Dixie school. I remember the steelhead and crayfish we would catch from the creek. Back then you could swim in the creek. I lived on Mt. Lassen and spent a lot of time in the hills behind my house. There were specific areas that would give me a heightened awareness of an Indian presence, almost like I was being watched. When they began digging drainage ditches before installing a playing field next to the school, we used to search them for Miwok artifacts. We found many arrowheads and objects I couldn’t identify as well as shells.
Mrn 403, nicknamed Ripoff because of its destruction, was located in upper lucas valley about 2 miles west of mrn-138. On the south bank of miller creek, its dimensions approached 30×30 meters with a depth of close to one meter in some sectors. During the excavations in Marinwood, many tools and ornaments were found, in among the remains of the shellfish they ate: mussels (mytilus edulis), oysters (ostrea lurida) and other species, clinocardium nuttalli and macoma. There were stone mortars, obsidian arrowheads, antler tines, bird bone whistles, mussel shell spoons, horseneck clams made into fiber strippers, clam disc beads, and gambling bones. The site, formally known as Mrn-138, is also the only site in Marin county where an atlatl spur (a spear thrower) has been found. There were also people: they found a number of careful burials, in one place seven adults 2 infants, and they also found signs that some people had been cremated.
A lot of people participated in this excavation, adults and also junior high schoolers, so I am sure there are Valley residents around today who remember working on this. (YES I DID in Jr. High)
His comments and discussion of the whole area includes such interesting comments as:
It has been shown that the residents of Gallinas Valley probably maintained a secret society and a semi-subterranean dance house at the village… it is suggested that the triblet population approached 150 people who were aggregated at a number of permanent and impermanent villages…
That littlest purple blotch on the left? that’s in upper lucas valley, just east of where the creek that omes in at Dixie school, formerly joined the main creek. I say formerly, because I imagine that little creek has been redirected a little bit, when our homes were built, and Mlller Creek probably has been, a little, as we know.
Indigenous Management and Land Practices
The local population of Coast Miwok managed and utilized every part of Miller Creek Watershed. Archeologists have studied some of the locations where they settled. The Miwok obtained acorns from oaks, salmon from the creek, pinole1 from the grasslands, shellfish and fowl from the marsh, and larger game from the savannas, forests and chaparral. Dozens of species were used and managed for medicines, food, clothing, ceremonial regalia, tools, and construction materials.
Fire was expertly used as a land management tool. Oak groves and savannas, grassland and chaparral were carefully burned to increase grain production, clear underbrush for better hunting, suppress plant pests and diseases, flush game, nurture particular plants used as food or construction materials, and to protect forests, savannas, and villages from destructive wildfires.
The Northwest Pacific Railroad connected San Rafael to Petaluma. The railroad crossed the watershed and was completed in 1878. Other infrastructure continued to expand during this era as well. These developments included roads, bridges, dikes, levees, and water delivery and drainage systems.Continue reading
The Island of California “Know that, on the right hand of the Indies was an island called California, very near to the region of the Terrestrial Paradise, which was populated by black women, without there being any men among them, that almost like the Amazons was their style of living. They were of vigorous bodies and strong and ardent hearts and of great strength; the island itself the strongest in steep rocks and cliff boulders that is found in the world; their arms were all of gold, and also the harnesses of the wild beasts, on which, after having tamed them, they rode; that in all the island there was no other metal whatsoever…
On this island, called California there were many griffins … and in the time that they had young these women would —take them to their caves, and there raise them. And … they fattened them on those men and the boys that they had born… Any make that entered the island was killed and eaten by them … There ruled on that island of California, a queen great of body, very beautiful for her race, at aflourishing age, desirous in her thoughts of achieving great things, valiant in strength, cunning in her brave heart, more than any other who had ruled that kingdom before her …Queen Calafia.” ~ Written in the 16th Century romance novel by a Spanish author named Garcia Ordonez de Montalvo.
It was titled, “Las Sergas del muy esforzado caballero Esplandian, hijo del excelente rey Amadis de Gaula,”The inspiration for the word was likely “Khalif” or “Khalifa” which means “successor” in Arabic but more specifically refers in Islam to a head of state or leader of the Muslims. Montalvo was surely familiar with these words. Portions of Spain were ruled by the Moors (Tartarians!), who were Muslim, from 757 to 1492. And it fits the story’s narrative. Montalvo’s novel was a fanciful rehash of the struggle between Christians and Muslims during the crusades.Was Wonder Woman Mythology really Queen Califia’s lands?When Wonder Woman’s homeland is first introduced in 1941, it is referred to as Paradise Island, a secret and hidden island on Earth inhabited by the Amazons of myth.
The Amazons were given a break from the hostilities and temptations of Man’s World, and sowere decreed to start a new life improving themselves by sequestering themselves to this island away from ancient Greece, after being enslaved by Hercules. With the island blessed by the Olympian Gods, no man was allowed to physically set foot on it. It was established that all Amazons are adept at a discipline called”bullets and bracelets” in which they are able to deflect bullets fired at them using the chain bands on their wrists. It was originally implied, but not yet fully confirmed, that Paradise Island was located somewhere in the Pacific Ocean.
HI All Born2Healers ~
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There is no book like this in the world today that covers the vast subtle energy remedies that are achieved using magnets and change of lifestyle. From the Ancient Chinese (Chi) to Egypt (Ka) to Vedic (Prana) have used magnets to heal, yet the Western Med -i-Sin has no word for subtle energy healing that can be done at a distance and remotely. How about “duh” ?
You can view the dozens of testimonials on my website for concrete proof and first person testimonials as well as in Appendix III in the book.
This book is for YOU. When/if you learn this most amazing healing protocol you can begin immediately getting results once you learn to muscle test.
“The Bible” I call it is necessary for healing session work. To get the “Bible” order here:https://www.usbiomag.com/product/biomagnetism-practitioners-guide-book/ Thank you Dr. Garcia, Dr. Goiz, and Dr. Randolph Stone
This book is meant to be a “Scriptures” in more of a “how to apply and get results” intention which I lay out for all in the first two appendices in the book. I also rewrite current and past HIS story about magnetic healing and the burying of it by Rockefeller men in 1910….And now it rises once more, and this book will, hopefully, give you the proper guidance and knowledge to get effective and consistent results, both in person and remotely at a distance.
Biomag 101 Color
The most unforgettable event that took place in the city of San Francisco, California, in the year 1906 was the infamous earthquake and fire.
However, two years earlier, in 1904, the most significant and memorable event was the very impressive assembly of Knights Templar of the Grand Encampment of the United States. San Francisco was literally “turned over” to host the twenty-ninth Triennial. Only a few examples of the opulent treatment given by the city will demonstrate the importance attributed to the event. Market Street, the major street of San Francisco, was lined with columns capped by Templar crosses.
The Ferry Building, at the foot of Market Street and perhaps the most dominant structure at that time, was outlined with lights and had a lighted Knight Templar cross on the side facing the city.
Jesuits and Freemasons Founded the “New” California
In the winter of 1840, the Western Emigration Society was founded in Missouri, with 500 pledging to trek west into Mexico California. Members included Baldridge, Barnett, Bartleson, Bidwell and Nye. Organized on 18 May 1841, Talbot H. Green was elected president, John Bidwell secretary, and John Bartleson captain. The group joined Father Pierre Jean De Smet’s Jesuit missionary group, led by Thomas F. Fitzpatrick, westward across South Pass along the Oregon Trail. That trail took them past Courthouse and Jail Rocks, Chimney Rock, Scotts Bluff, Fort Laramie, and Independence Rock. The Bartleson-Bidwell party separated from Fitzpatrick, and the missionary group, at Soda Springs on 11 Aug.
Some 152 years ago Freemason Brother Peter Lassen led 12 wagons from Missouri to California, forging the treacherous – and now infamous – Lassen Trail. After months of hardship, he successfully delivered new settlers to Benton City, the state’s northernmost community. On November 23, 1848, Levi Stowell was appointed master of the new lodge, and on November 15, 1849, the lodge was formally organized under the charter. After meeting the requirements of the Grand Lodge of California, Sacramento Lodge #40 was chartered on May 6, 1854 and assigned the number 40, signifying that it was the fortieth Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons to be chartered in the state of California. La Fayette Lodge No. 126 was chartered by the Grand Lodge of California on May 13, 1858. It is located in Sebastopol California, originally a farming community north of San Francisco. To this day, La Fayette Lodge maintains the traditions of a small-town community.
Jesuit Joseph Justus Scaliger (1540 – 1609) Chief Architect of Falsifying Modern History
Joseph Scaliger was a French Jesuit religious leader and scholar, known for expanding the notion of classical history from Greek and ancient Roman history to include Persian, Babylonian, Jewish and ancient Egyptian history. In 1601 Gaspar Scioppius, then in the service of the Jesuits published his Scaliger Hypobolimaeus (“The Supposititious Scaliger”), a quarto volume of more than four hundred pages. The author purports to point out five hundred lies in the Epistola de vetustate of Scaliger. The pressure of the Scaligerian chronology and all of these oddities brings historians to the conclusion that:
“The Middle Ages were the time when all idea of chronological consequentiality had been lost: monks with crosses and thuribles at the funeral of Alexander the Great, Catilina attending mass… Orpheus becomes a contemporary of Aeneas, Sardanapal a Greek king, and Julian the Apostate – a Papal chaplain. Everything acquires a hue of fantasy in this world [this perplexes the modern historian greatly – A. F.. The most blatant anachronisms and the strangest fancies coexist peacefully.”
Jesuits, Knights Templar and Freemasons well established in San Francisco by 1849
View of the Knights Templar parade in San Francisco, August 20th, 1883. It was built in 1905 and 1906-1907. The building has been home to two institutions, the Knights Templar and the Baptist Church. The building was originally built for the Golden Gate Commandery #16 of the Knights Templar, a masonic order at the turn of the century. The building was originally built for the Golden Gate Commandery #16 of the Knights Templar.Continue reading
00:00:00 – Episode 1: Questioning His-story 00:13:25 –
Episode 2: A Lens Into The Past 00:38:28 –
Episode 3: Inheritors Of Mud & Magnificence 01:19:19 –
Episode 4: Back To The Future 02:15:38 –
Episode 5: The Whispering Of The Water 03:27:28 –
Episode 6: Offerus And The Alchemist 04:31:57 –
Episode 7: The Known World
For video breakdown
The Origins of Vaccines Will Shock You!
|Vaccination—Vatican’s Medical Inquisition Revealed at Last!!|
Vaccination came from the Vatican via Great Britain at the exact same time as Darwins “Evilution of Species”. Coincindence?
Definition of terms for this exposé. Vaccination and inoculation are often used interchangeably today.
|Immunization: To be immune from catching a certain disease e.g., childhood measles makes a person immune from catching measles for the rest of his/her life.||Vaccination: Injection of diseased matter of cows, calves, monkeys, pigs or other animals into the human bloodstream in order to make one immune from human diseases like smallpox.||Inoculation: The practice of injecting a human disease like smallpox into the bloodstream in order to make a person immune from catching smallpox.|
|Variolae: Medieval Latin or scientific name for SMALLPOX – an exclusively HUMAN disease which is caused by the bite of a blood-sucking insect named Cimex Lectularius or the bedbug.||Vaccine: From the Latin word for COW. Name that was given to cowpox that Jenner injected into humans in order to make them immune from smallpox.||Cowpox: A disease of cows’ udders which is caused by milking cows with dirty or cut hands.|
|Vacca is the Latin word for cow.||A calf is a young cow or bull. Lymph (poison) for vaccines comes from calves.||A bull is a male cow.|
Medicine man Edward Jenner was the father of modern vaccination!!
Edward Jenner—a quack doctor— was the father of the filthy practice of vaccination:
|Edward Jenner S.J. (1749 —1823).||Edward Jenner was an S.J. — a Slick Jesuit — who taught the medical world how to use the POISONED NEEDLE. He was the first to associate human diseases with that of animals. This idea paved the way for vaccination which is responsible for the deaths of multiplied millions of people around the world. The idea that humans and animals are related and share the same diseases led to the theory of evilution which is responsible for the spiritual death of multiplied millions more.In the countryside in Gloustershire, England, where Jenner lived, the farmers had a legend or superstition that catching cowpox (a disease of cows which was transferred to the cows’ udders by unwashed or bleeding hands) would act like a charm or amulet to make them immune from catching the human disease of smallpox. Medicine man Jenner took this local legend or old wives’ tale and turned it into a scientific FACT. He did this by first getting some scientific credentials (M.D., F.R.S. – Fellow of the Royal Society). Next he wrote a book and on the title page only he used the term VARIOLAE VACCINAE. This means in Medieval Latin: smallpox of the cow. Thus associating a human disease with a disease of the cow. There never was such a disease as smallpox of the cow until “Dr.” Jenner invented it for the title of his book.|
Jenner invented a new disease—VARIOLAE VACCINAE—smallpox of the cow!!
Must Read! Full Jesuit Blood Oath (source)
To fully understand the origins of vaccines, one must be versed in Jesuit Conspiracy and who the Jesuits really are, including the Black Pope and the first Jesuit Pope in 600 years, Pope Francis as well as their militarized army, the Knights of Malta, of which George H.W. Bush, Colin Powell, Michael Bloomberg, etc. are all members. This video will help to give you background as well as my links on their history.
It is a system which has conscripted vast human and material resources into the building of a tightly knit, highly efficient machine that combines military, diplomatic, intelligence, economic, scientific and political operations. Its preparations are concealed, not published. Its mistakes are buried not headlined. Its dissenters are silenced, not praised. No expenditure is questioned, no rumor is printed, no secret is revealed.” – John F. Kennedy’s secret society speech on April 27, 1961
‘A conspiracy is rarely, if ever, proved by positive testimony. When a crime of high magnitude is about to be perpetrated by a combination of individuals, they do not act openly, but covertly and secretly. The purpose formed is known only to those who enter into it. Unless one of the original conspirators betray his companions and give evidence against them, their guilt can be proved only by circumstantial evidence…and circumstances can not lie.’ [Special Judge Advocate John A. Bingham, quoted in The Trial Of The Conspirators, Washington, 1865]
The Assassinated Lincoln As Well (source)
Knowing that President Kennedy was not going to escalate the Vietnam War, the Intelligence Community began to prepare for his assassination. Roman Catholic Lee Oswald was chosen to be a patsy…. As a CIA agent, he had been sent to Soviet Russia by Allen Dulles in 1959, supposedly as a defector. Knowing that the CIA (OSS) and the KGB (NKVD) had worked together during WW-II, Oswald apparently took a vacation for nearly two years. During that time he married a Russian whose uncle was a Colonel in the KGB.
“I know the Jesuits never forget nor forsake. But man must not care how and where he dies, provided he dies at the post of honor and duty.” ~Abraham Lincoln (“50 Years in the ‘church’ of Rome” by Charles Chiniquy pg. 472).
When he returned to the American Empire in 1962, he associated with CIA agents Howard Hunt, Frank Sturgis, David Ferrie, Guy Banister, Count George DeMohrenschildt, and Clay Shaw. Oswald was CIA, and related to a Jesuit. Emannuel Josephson tells us:
‘An interesting angle is presented by the Lee Oswald involvement. His cousin is reported to be a Jesuit priest. And it is a matter of record that Lee Oswald was invited to address the Jesuit college in Springhill, Alabama, on the subject of his activities, two weeks before the Kennedy Assassination. The Jesuit involvement closely parallels that in the Lincoln Assassination.’ [The Federal Reserve Conspiracy And Rockefellers, Emanuel M. Josephson, 1968]
And who was the Director of the CIA in 1963? It was Knight of Malta John McCone. Prior to that McCone had been a defense contractor who had formally headed the Atomic Energy Commission. Later in 1970, he was a board member of ITT while remaining a CIA consultant. Marchetti tells us: Continue reading
Chronology of 500 Year Jesuit Deception and Flat Earth
Jesuits were often highly trained in languages and the sciences and were expected to use their technical knowledge, especially in the realm of astronomy, to win over rulers and elites around the world and convince them, by extension, of the superiority of the Catholic message.
By 1750, 30 of the world’s 130 astronomical observatories were run by Jesuit astronomers and 35 lunar craters have been named to honor Jesuit scientists.
When Flat Round Earth Got Dropped from Scientific Inquiry
Up until the Jesuit Order was created in 1540, the most common school of thought in regards to Cosmology was that the Earth was Flat and Round, as had been the teachings for 5,000 years.
Once the Jesuits gained power around the world, the instilled the global ball Earth theory called Heliocentrism, step by step by step until after just a few generations, everyone on Earth KNEW the Earth was traveling around the Sun at incredible speeds.
It began with changing the conversation from one of a Flat Earth and Geocentered to just a debate as to whether we spun around the Sun or the Sun moved around us, completely eliminating the entire Flat Earth theory.
Flat Earth theory is never brought up in history lessons, or astronomy classes or by any supossed learned institutions. In fact, it wasn’t until one year ago when “Flat Earth Conspiracy” by Eric Dubay was introduced to the public.
Over the past 150 years several courageous Men and Women tried to educate the masses to the great fraud perp’d so expertly, over so long, by the Jesuits, yet know the cat is out of the bag and the truth is available for all to learn.
Here is a chronology of how Jesuits have been involved in every step of the way of deceiving all to believe we are just a small tiny insignificant blip in a massive universe vis-a-vis a Earth centered Universe where we are the Biggest Show in the Universe and of most importance.
Geocentrism vs. Heliocentrism and no longer discussion of Flat Earth Theory
When Jesuit astronomer, Giovanni Battista Riccioli published his Almagestrum Novum or “New Almagest” the title alone suggested the boldness of the project. This was to be a new and updated take on Ptolemy’s Almagest. The book offered new insight into the state of thought about the cosmos in 17th century Europe.
The frontispiece to Riccioli’s Almagestrum Novum tells his perspective on the state of astronomy in 1651. Urania, the winged muse of astronomy, holds up a scale with two competing models, a sun centered Copernican model, and the Tychonic geocentric model. The Ptolemaic model sits discarded in the bottom right corner of the scene. On the right, 100 eyed Argus points at cherubs in the upper right corner of the illustration.
The Cherubs hold recent observational discoveries; the moons of Jupiter, a detailed mountainous moon and the rings of Saturn. Under God’s hand from the top of the image, the scale reports the Tychonic model to be heavier and thus the winner.
Some of the most interesting details in this illustration are tucked away in the corners. In the upper right corner, among the clouds, are small representations of additional solar systems. Beyond the central diagram, the mapmaker shows the concept of the plurality of worlds. Each of these little sets of circles represents its own solar system with a star and planets. This image directly draws on the literary author, de Fontenelle, who building on the ideas of Newton and Descartes’, explored the significance of living in a universe with a plurality of worlds each orbiting their own stars.
Riccioli leans on the authority of a number of contemporary and historical thinkers. He lists 38 different astronomers and thinkers, such as Aristotle, Ptolemy and others who believe the Earth to be the center of the universe. He compares them to the 16 astronomers, including Copernicus, Kepler, and Descartes, who favor a sun centered model.
There were three mathematical models to describe the movements of the heavens in 163
- The Aristotelian / Ptolemaic system, with everything orbiting around a stationary Earth, which had largely fallen out of favour following Galileo’s observations.
- The Tychonic system (developed by Tycho Brahe), in which the Earth was viewed as stationary, the Sun went around the Earth and everything else went around the Sun. After Galileo’s presentations in 1611, this became the favoured model of the Roman Catholic Church. Most Jesuit astronomers (such as Clavius) had adopted this system by 1620.
- The Copernican system, with a stationary Sun around which everything else revolved.
A statue of Nicolaus Copernicus erected 1973, 500 years after his birthday in front of the Jesuit college and a planetarium in Piotrkow Trybunalski, …
Among Catholics, Christoph Clavius (1537–1612) was the leading astronomer in the sixteenth century. A Jesuit himself, he incorporated astronomy into the Jesuit curriculum and was the principal scholar behind the creation of the Gregorian calendar. Like the Wittenberg astronomers, Clavius adopted Copernican mathematical models when he felt them superior, but he believed that Ptolemy’s cosmology — both his ordering of the planets and his use of the equant — was correct.
Pope Clement VII (r. 1523–1534) had reacted favorably to a talk about Copernicus’s theories, rewarding the speaker with a rare manuscript. There is no indication of how Pope Paul III, to whom On the Revolutions was dedicated reacted; however, a trusted advisor, Bartolomeo Spina of Pisa (1474–1546) intended to condemn it but fell ill and died before his plan was carried out (see Rosen, 1975). Thus, in 1600 there was no official Catholic position on the Copernican system, and it was certainly not a heresy.
After disagreements with the new Danish king Christian IV in 1597, he was invited by the Bohemian king and Holy Roman emperor Rudolph II to Prague, where he became the official imperial astronomer. He built the new observatory at Benátky nad Jizerou. There, from 1600 until his death in 1601, he was assisted by Johannes Kepler who later used Tycho’s astronomical data to develop his three laws of planetary motion.
Some acceptance of the Tychonic system persisted through the 17th century and in places until the early 18th century; it was supported (after a 1633 decree about the Copernican controversy) by “a flood of pro-Tycho literature” of Jesuit origin.
Among pro-Tycho Jesuits, Ignace Pardies declared in 1691 that it was still the commonly accepted system, and Francesco Blanchinus reiterated that as late as 1728. Persistence of the Tychonic system, especially in Catholic countries, has been attributed to its satisfaction of a need (relative to Catholic doctrine) for “a safe synthesis of ancient and modern”.
“The laws of nature are written by the hand of God in the language of mathematics.” – Galileo Galilei (Il Saggiatore, 1623)
Initially a beneficiary of church patronage of astronomy, Galileo rose to prominence with the publication of Sidereus Nuncius, which comprised astronomical observations made possible by the 1608 invention of the telescope. He was feted in Rome, honoured by the Jesuits of the Roman College and received by Pope Paul V and church dignitaries
In 1611 Galileo travelled to Rome to present his findings, and was greeted with great acclaim. He demonstrated his observations of Jupiter to Christopher Clavius, a Jesuit at the Collegio Romano and the most respected astronomer in Europe at the time, who confirmed Galileo’s observations and parts of his theses of planetary motion. He was monumentally arrogant, belligerent and abrasive towards any who opposed him.
Controversial Questions’ (don’t you just love that title?), wrote a letter to Galileo in April 1615 outlining the Church’s official position. He pointed out that Copernican theory was perfectly acceptable as a working hypothesis, and if there were proof that the earth circles around the sun, “then we should have to proceed with great circumspection in explaining passages of Scripture which appear to teach the contrary.”
Galileo had no astronomical proof to offer, partly because his own observations did not align properly with his theory. Instead, Galileo proposed as proof a flawed and unconvincing theory that the tides were evidence of the Earth’s rotation (and, incidentally, specifically denying that lunar attraction was involved). In 1616 the Church ordered him to cease and desist his public advocacy of the unproven theory.
n 1623 his friend and supporter Maffeo Barberini ascended to the papacy, and Galileo confidently re-entered the public fray. In the same year he published Il Saggiatore (‘The Assayer’), in which he launched a vicious assault on a treatise on comets by Orazio Grassi, a Jesuit mathematician at the Collegio Romano. Grassi used observations of parallax to argue that comets are further away than the moon; Galileo ridiculed this idea and claimed instead that comets are an optical illusion. His factual error notwithstanding, the harshness of Galileo’s tone permanently soured his relations with the Jesuit order. Pope Urban VIII thoroughly enjoyed the rhetorical flourishes of Galileo’s prose, however, and composed a poem in his honour.
The Jesuits at the Roman College undoubtedly followed Aristotle in philosophy and Ptolemy in astronomy, at least for didactic purposes.
Orazio Grassi, S.J. (1 May 1583 – 23 July 1654), was an Italian Jesuit priest, who is best noted as a mathematician, astronomer and architect. He was one of the authors in controversy with Galileo Galilei on the nature of comets
Giovanni Battista Riccioli (17 April 1598 – 25 June 1671) was an Italian astronomer and a Catholic priest in the Jesuit order. He is known, among other things, for his experiments with pendulums and with falling bodies, for his discussion of 126 arguments concerning the motion of the Earth, and for introducing the current scheme of lunar nomenclature.
Other 17th Century Jesuit Astronomers:
- Matteo Ricci (1552–1610), Italian mathematician, translator, and noted for his importance to the Jesuit China missions.
- Christopher Clavius (1538–1612), German mathematician and astronomer, most noted in connection with the Gregorian calendar, but also his arithmetic books were used by many mathematicians including Leibniz and Descartes.
- François d’Aguilon (1567-1617), Belgian mathematician and physicist who worked on optics.
- Giuseppe Biancani (1566-1624), Italian astronomer and selenographer who wrote Sphaera mundi, seu cosmographia demonstrativa, ac facili methodo tradita.
- Wenceslas Pantaleon Kirwitzer (1588-1626), Czech astronomer and missionary to China.
- Charles Malapert (1581-1630), Belgian astronomer known for observing the stars of the southern sky and being against Copernicus.
- Christoforo Borri (1583–1632), Italian mathematician and astronomy who made observations on the magnetic variation of the compass.
- Christoph Grienberger (1561-1636), Austrian astronomer and mathematician.
- Giovanni Battista Zupi (c.1590-1650), Italian astronomer who discovered that Mercury had orbital phases.
- Alexius Sylvius Polonus (1593-c.1653), Polish astronomer.
- Johann Baptist Cysat (1587-1657), Swiss mathematician and astronomer, who did important research on comets and the Orion nebula.
- Mario Bettinus (1582-1657), Italian mathematician and astronomer..
- André Tacquet (1612-1660), Flemish mathematician whose work prepared the ground for the eventual discovery of calculus.
- Francesco Maria Grimaldi 1618-1663), Italian physicist, who coined the word ‘diffraction’ and used instruments to measure geological features on the Moon.
- Niccolo Zucchi (1586-1670), Italian astronomer known for his study of Jupiter and work on telescope design.
- Giovanni Battista Riccioli (1598-1671), Italian astronomer who was the first to note that Mizar was a “double star.”
- Albert Curtz (1600-1671), German astronomer.
- Jacques de Billy (1602-1679), French mathematician who wrote on number theory and astronomy.
- Athanasius Kircher (1601-1680), German who in his Scrutinium Pestis of 1658 he noted the presence of “little worms” or “animalcules” in the blood, and concluded that the disease was caused by micro-organisms. This is antecedent to germ theory.
Rene Descartes laid the foundation for 17th-century continental rationalism, later advocated by Baruch Spinoza and Gottfried Leibniz, and opposed by the empiricist school of thought consisting of Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume. Leibniz, Spinoza and Descartes were all well versed in mathematics as well as philosophy, and Descartes and Leibniz contributed greatly to science as well.
Jean- Fran Fouquet was born in Vézelay in a wealthy family. He studied at Lycée Louis le Grand in Paris. In 1681 he entered the order of the Jesuits. Four years later he taught mathematics. In 1693 he became a priest and in the following year he decided he wanted to volunteer in Asia. In 1699 he arrived in Amoy. Until 1711 he worked in Fujian and Jiangxi, then he was invited to Peking, to teach math and astronomy.
Jean-Félix Picard (21 July 1620 – 12 July 1682) was a French astronomer and priest born in La Flèche, where he studied at the Jesuit Collège Royal Henry-Le-Grand. . He was the first person to measure the size of the Earth to a reasonable degree of accuracy in a survey conducted in 1669–70, for which he is honored with a pyramid at Juvisy-sur-Orge.
Jesuit Astronomers with Chinese Scholars in the 18th Century
The Jesuit China missions of the 16th and 17th centuries introduced Western science and astronomy, then undergoing its own revolution, to China. One modern historian writes that in late Ming courts, the Jesuits were “regarded as impressive especially for their knowledge of astronomy, calendar-making, mathematics, hydraulics, and geography.”
The Society of Jesus introduced, according to Thomas Woods, “a substantial body of scientific knowledge and a vast array of mental tools for understanding the physical universe, including the Euclidean geometry that made planetary motion comprehensible.” Another expert quoted by Woods said the scientific revolution brought by the Jesuits coincided with a time when science was at a very low level in China.
On 8 June 1723, Fouquet was received by Pope Innocent XIII. Fouquet met another Chinese in Rome, who offered him help with translating. In 1725 he was appointed as bishop of Eleutheropolis in Palestine.
Johannes Kepler December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer. A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution, he is best known for his laws of planetary motion, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. These works also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton‘s theory of universal gravitation.
Modern refracting telescopes are based on a design proposed by Johannes Kepler in 1611 but first constructed by Father Christopher Scheiner some time between 1613 and 1617 (see Timeline of the Telescope).
Why did Scheiner build an astronomical telescope when other scientists of his day seemed quite content with the Galilean telescope? The answer may require looking past Scheiner to his order, the Jesuits. Scheiner’s unorthodoxy regarding telescope construction, use and theory was not out of place in the Jesuits. Another Jesuit of Scheiner’s and Galileo’s time, Niccolo Zucchi, demonstrated that a telescopic effect could be achieved using a combination of parabolic mirrors and lenses instead of just lenses. This crude reflecting telescope was built more than 50 years before Newton’s famous telescope.
The Jesuits also have a connection with the spread of telescope technology beyond Europe. The first telescope in North America was a gift presented by the Jesuits in 1646 to Jean Bourdon, an engineer in New France (modern day Quebec) [_5_] . The first telescope in China was brought there by Johannes Schreck, another Jesuit, in 1621 (his trip from Europe started in 1618) [_6_] . The Jesuit Jean Richaud is wrongly thought to be the first to use telescopes for astronomical purposes in India.
Related and Relevant Sidebar:
The Vatican’s latest ….The L.U.C.I.F.E.R. Telescope
the dedication plaque of the VATT reads:
This new tower for studying the stars has been erected during the XV year of the reign of John Paul II on this peaceful site so fit for such studies, and it has been equipped with a new large mirror for detecting the faintest glimmers of light from distant objects. May whoever searches here night and day the far reaches of space use it joyfully with the help of God.
“It may be boldly asked where can the man be found, possessing the extraordinary gifts of Newton, who could suffer himself to be deluded by such a hocus-pocus, if he had not in the first instance willfully deceived himself; Only those who know the strength of self-deception, and the extent to which it sometimes trenches on dishonesty, are in a condition to explain the conduct of Newton and of Newton’s school.
To support his unnatural theory Newton heaps fiction upon fiction, seeking to dazzle where he cannot convince. In whatever way or manner may have occurred this business, I must still say that I curse this modern history theory of Cosmology, and hope that perchance there may appear, in due time, some young scientists of genius, who will pick up courage enough to upset this universally disseminated delirium of lunatics.”
“Along with the rest of the world I was convinced that all the colors are contained in the light; no one had ever told me anything different, and I had never found the least cause to doubt it, because I had no further interest in the subject…But how I was astonished, as I looked at a white wall through the prism, that it stayed white! That only where it came upon some darkened area, it showed some color, then at last, around the window sill all the colors shone… It didn’t take long before I knew here was something significant about color to be brought forth, and I spoke as through an instinct out loud, that the Newtonian teachings were false.” ~ Johannes Wolfgang Goethe (Source)
Isaac Newton’s Theory of Colors Worked Out With Jesuits of England
Sir Isaac Newton was also engaged in another exchange on his theory of colors with a circle of English Jesuits in Lige, perhaps the most revealing exchange of all. Although their objections were shallow, their contention that his experiments were mistaken lashed him into a fury. The correspondence dragged on until 1678, when a final shriek of rage from Newton, apparently accompanied by a complete nervous breakdown, was followed by silence.
Newton has been identified as a “Grand Master of the Priory of Sion” from 1691-1727 in documents by Pierre Plantard.
Newton was made President of the Royal Society in 1703 and an associate of the French Academie des Sciences. In his position at the Royal Society, Newton made an enemy of John Flamsteed, the Astronomer Royal, by prematurely publishing Flamsteed’s star catalogue.
…The researchers say that a little known school of scholars in southwest India discovered one of the founding principles of modern mathematics hundreds of years before Newton, a University of Manchester statement says.
Newton‘s supposed “law of gravity,” are what’s truly dubious. Heliocentrists cannot show us a single object massive enough that by virtue of its mass alone, causes other smaller masses to stick to or orbit it as they claim happens with the Sun, Moon, Earth, Stars and Planets. If you cannot give me a single practical example of “gravity” smaller than the Earth or the Sun, then it is merely heresay, not science! ~ Eric Dubay Flat Earth Conspiracy
Newton’s Major Body of Work Heavily Edited by Jesuits
“Newton’s Laws have been responsible for the discovery of planets, for the construction of safe bridges, roads and amusement park rides, for an understanding of the ocean’s tides, and for realistic computer animations and video games,” said Erlich, the Class of 2017 Associate Professor of Physics. “It would be difficult to overstate the importance of at least some of these things.”
After the first edition (hereafter referred to as Newton 1), two subsequent editions were published. The second edition (Newton 2) was published in 1713 and the third edition (Newton 3) in 1726. Then, just over a decade later, comes Newton 4, the so-called Jesuit edition, which was edited by two Minim friars. The Jesuit edition contains commentary that extends to roughly the same length as Newton’s text. The text for the Jesuit edition was, in fact, taken from the Newton 3 edition of the Principia—the last edition to be edited by Newton himself.(Source)
Newton Did Not discover Calculus but Passed on by Jesuits
Dr George Gheverghese Joseph from The University of Manchester says the ‘Kerala School’ identified the ‘infinite series’- one of the basic components of calculus – in about 1350.
The discovery is currently – and wrongly – attributed in books to Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibnitz at the end of the seventeenth centuries.
And there is strong circumstantial evidence that the Indians passed on their discoveries to mathematically knowledgeable Jesuit missionaries who visited India during the fifteenth century. (source)
Newton vs. Castel; Theory of Colors
t was in 1740 that Louis Bertrand Castel published a criticism of Newton’s spectral description of prismatic colour in which he observed that the colours of white light split by a prism depended on the distance from the prism, and that Newton was looking at a special case. It was an argument that Goethe later developed in his Theory of Colours
Roger Joseph Boscovich 18 May 1711 – 13 February 1787) was a Ragusan physicist, astronomer, mathematician, philosopher, diplomat, poet, theologian, Jesuit priest, and a polymath from the city of Dubrovnik in the Republic of Ragusa (modern-day Croatia), who studied and lived in Italy and France where he also published many of his works.
In 1744 he was ordained to the Roman Catholic priesthood
He produced a precursor of atomic theory and made many contributions to astronomy, including the first geometric procedure for determining the equator of a rotating planet from three observations of a surface feature and for computing the orbit of a planet from three observations of its position. In 1753 he also discovered the absence of atmosphere on the Moon.[4
Other Jesuit Astronomers of the 1700’s
- Valentin Stansel (1621 – 1705), Czech astronomer in Brazil, who discovered a comet, that after accurate positions were made via F. de Gottignies in Goa, became known as Estancel-Gottignies
- Paolo Casati (1617-1707), Italian scientist, notable in meteorology and speculation on Vacuums.
- Franz Reinzer (1661-1708), Austrian writer who wrote about comets, meteors, lightning, winds, fossils, metals, etc.
- Eusebio Kino (1645 – 1711) Trentino missionary, mathematician, cartographer and astronomer who drew maps based on his explorations first showing that California was not an island as then believed and who published an astronomical treatise in Mexico City based on his observations of the Kirsch Comet.
- Giuseppe Asclepi (1706-1776), Italian astronomer.
- Christian Mayer (1719-1783), Czech astronomer known for his pioneering study of binary stars.
- Roger Joseph Boscovich (1711–1787), an Ragusan Polymath famous for his atomic theory in part. Also for devising perhaps the first geometric procedure for determining the equator of a rotating planet from three observations of a surface feature and for computing the orbit of a planet from three observations of its position.
- João de Loureiro (1717–1791), Portuguese mathematician and botanist active in Cochinchina.
- Maximilian Hell (1720-1792), Hungarian director of the Vienna Observatory who wrote astronomy tables and observed the Transit of Venus.
- Ignacije Szentmartony (1718-1793), Croatian who ‘obtained the title of royal mathematician and astronomer’ and used his astronomical knowledge in mapping parts of Brazil.
Someday someone will write a pathology of experimental physics and bring to light all those swindles which subvert our reason, beguile our judgement and, what is worse, stand in the way of any practical progress. The phenomena must be freed once and for all from their grim torture chamber of empiricism, mechanism, and dogmatism; they must be brought before the jury of man’s common sense.— Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
The 1822 Treaty of Verona
(between Austria, France, Prussia and Russia) the Jesuits agreed to smash the US Constitution and suppress the freedom of the US. Their methods included destroying free speech, destroying and suppressing the press, universal censorship, sustaining the cooperation of the Pope and clergy to use religion to help keep nations in passive obedience and financing wars against countries with representative governments.
The monarchs who signed this treaty were ultimately deposed. Most of these families are very wealthy and may be more powerful today than when they sat upon thrones. They are known collectively as the Black Nobility. Privately these families refuse to recognize any right to rule except their own. The fact that this treaty was made long ago does not mean it is void. The treaty was placed in the Congressional Record on April 25, 1916 by Senator Owen.(source)
The threat under the secret treaty of Verona to suppress popular governments in the American Republics is the basis of the Monroe doctrine. This secret treaty sets forth clearly the conflict between monarchial government and popular government and the government of the few as against the government of the many.
The Holy Alliance made its powers felt by the wholesale drastic suppression of the press in Europe, by universal censorship, by killing free speech and all ideas of popular rights, and by the complete suppression of popular government.
The Holy Alliance having destroyed popular government in Spain and in Italy, had well-laid plans also to destroy popular government in the American colonies which had revolted from Spain and Portugal in Central and South America under the influence of the successful example of the United States.
It was because of this conspiracy against the American Republics by the European monarchies that the great English statesman, Canning, called the attention of our government to it, and our statesmen then, including Thomas Jefferson, took an active part to bring about the declaration by President Monroe in his next annual message to the Congress of the United States that the United States should regard it as an act of hostility to the government of the United States and an unfriendly act if this coalition or if any power of Europe ever undertook to establish upon the American Continent any control of any American Republic or to acquire any territorial rights.
This is the so-called Monroe doctrine.
Fr. Secchi was born in Reggio Emilia, where he studied at the Jesuit gymnasium. At the age of 16, he entered the Jesuit Order in Rome. He continued his studies at the Roman College, and demonstrated great scientific ability. In 1839, he was appointed tutor of mathematics and physics at the College. In 1841, he became Professor of Physics at the Jesuit College in Loreto. In 1844, he began theological studies in Rome, and was ordained a priest on 12 September 1847. In 1848, due to the Roman Revolution, the Jesuits had to leave Rome.
Fr. Secchi spent the next two years in the United Kingdom at Stonyhurst College, and the United States, where he taught for a time at Georgetown University in Washington, DC. He also took his doctoral examination in theology there.
Sidebar: Vastly Changing Distances to the Sun or How Wrong They’ve Been.Nicolas Copernicus estimated 3 million miles away
Johannes Kepler estimated 12 mill miles away
Isaac Newton, “it matters not if its 24 or 56 mill. miles away, science will find the answer.”
Distance Story 93 million miles away.
Royal Astronomical Society
The Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) is a learned society that began as the Astronomical Society of London in 1820 to support astronomical research (mainly carried on at the time by ‘gentleman astronomers‘ rather than professionals). It became the Royal Astronomical Society in 1831 on receiving its Royal Charter from William IV.
India gets Astronomy with help of Jesuits
G.V.Juggarow Observatory, established in 1840, was the earliest private modern Indian as-tronomical observatory that functioned till the turn of the twentieth century. Jesuit priest-astronomers were the real initiators of telescopic astronomy in India, particularly FatherJ.Richaud who carried out systematic observations of binary stars, comets, zodiacal light,dark clouds etc. at Pondicherry from 1689 (Rao et al 1984) http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1103/1103.5104.pdf
Other 19th Century Jesuit Astronomers
- Franz de Paula Triesnecker (1745-1817), Austrian astronomer.
- Angelo Secchi (1818-1878), Italian astronomer who discovered the existence of solar spicules and drew an early map of Mars.
- Benito Viñes (1837-1893), Spanish scientist who led the Bethlehem College Observatory in Havana and was known as “Father Hurricane” because of his research on hurricanes.
The “consensus” that Catholic faith is somehow opposed to science, and has stifled and restrained it, is a long-held bias based on prejudice and not evidence. At times in the history of science and faith, the truth has been just the other way around.
..” It was about the Belgian Jesuit priest, mathematician and physicist, Father Georges Lemaitre, originator of the Big Bang theory and the man who changed the mind of Albert Einstein on the true origin of the created Universe.
“The term “big bang” was coined by a bitter opponent of the theory: the English astronomer and physicist Fred Hoyle. In 1950, Hoyle gave a series of Saturday night radio talks for the BBC on “The Nature of the Universe.” Detesting the notion that the universe had a beginning, he held a different theory, according to which the universe is eternal. In his concluding talk, Hoyle, striving for a visual image of the theory he opposed, called it “this big bang idea.” The name gradually stuck, without any of the pejorative overtones Hoyle may have intended.” (Source)
At the very end of that post, there is a photograph of Father Lemaitre with Albert Einstein who once told Father Lemaitre in response to his theory about the Big Bang, “Your math is perfect, but your physics is abominable.”
Six years later, in 1933, Einstein declared that his own “Cosmological Constant” – his theory that the Universe always existed – was his greatest error, and he called Father Lemaitre’s work “the most beautiful and satisfactory explanation of creation I have ever heard.” For Einstein to use the “C” word – Creation – was a pivotal moment in modern science.
In 1941, he was elected member of the Royal Academy of Sciences and Arts of Belgium, and he received the very first Eddington Medal awarded by the Royal Astronomical Society in 1953.
The story of Fr. Lemaitre’s role in modern cosmology was often stifled by science because he was a Catholic priest.
In January 1933, Lemaître and Einstein, who had met on several occasions—in 1927 in Brussels, at the time of a Solvay Conference, in 1932 in Belgium, at the time of a cycle of conferences in Brussels and lastly in 1935 at Princeton—traveled together to the U.S. state of California for a series of seminars.
Newspapers around the world called him a famous Belgian scientist and described him as the leader of the new cosmological physics.
Origins of Man as Told by Jesuits
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881–1955), French palaeontologist and philosopher involved in the discovery of the so-called Peking Man. Teilhard was praised by Pope Benedict XVI, and he was also noted for his contributions to theology in Pope Francis‘ 2015 encyclical Laudato si’.
Beginning in 1887, U.S. scientist Albert Abraham Michelson began to do experiments to try and detect the motion of the earth around the sun by using the speed of light as a barometer. This experiment was called the Michelson-Morley experiment and was famous for one thing: ALL THE RESULTS WERE NEGATIVE.
After serving as professor at Clark University at Worcester, Massachusetts, from 1889 until 1892, Michelson was appointed professor and the first head of the department of physics at the newly organized University of Chicago. With his big salary from Rockefeller, and the Nobel Prize money, Michelson was content not to make WAVES about the non-motion of the earth.
In 1924, Michelson received a huge grant from the university in order to determine the ROTATION of the earth by using the speed of light. This test consisted of a mile long 12 inch tunnel with all the air removed. As expected, all the results were NEGATIVE.
By 1900, the proof of the non-motion of the earth did not cause Michelson to get on his knees and acknowledge that the Bible was correct after all. Had he and the “scientific” community done so, the whole evolutionary house of sand would have come crashing down. That is the last thing that the Jesuits wanted. Their answer was to use Albert Einstein to invent a completely new theory of the universe called RELATIVITY. So now the scene shifts from the U.S. to Switzerland and an obscure clerk in the Swiss Patent Office named Albert Einstein.
Einstein and Michelson at the Mount Wilson Observatory in 1931.
“Today’s scientists have substituted mathematics for experiments, and they wander off through equation after equation, and eventually build a structure which has no relation to reality.”