Tag Archives: gravity

How Did The Kings of Astronomy Get it So Wrong? – Einstein and the Still Earth

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It will be remembered how Hipparchus failed to get an angle to the stars 2,000 years ago, and arrived at the conclusion that they must be infinitely distant; and we have seen how that hypothesis has been handed down to us through all the centuries without question.
~ G. Hickson ~
*****

 

This article/post is mostly taken from the work of Gerard Hickson in his 1922 book, “Kings Dethroned”.  He lays clearly, concisely and irrefutably, how astronomer by astronomer in the 16th and 17th centuries began in error by the way they measured distance from Earth to Sun, Moon and planets and then subsequently came up with preposterous theory after theory, over decades, to cover up there errors, that continues to this very day.

From Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Halley, Newton in Europe across the pond in the 1900’s to Einstein and NASA, astronomy has used the same errors in calculating distance of stars and planets in what is called Astrometry.

In the 1920’s, Gerrard Hickson proves conclusively, using their own geometry, math and theories of heliocentrism, gravity, relativity, etc., are gravely in gross error.

In no uncertain terms this work blows apart the Sun centered, Earth a sphere rotating, gravity based heliocentric theory that has been taught in every classroom on our flat plane Earth for the past century or more.

Enjoy!

 

(Original book title)

Kings Dethroned; A History of the Evolution of Astronomy from the time of the Roman Empire up to the present day; showing it to be an amazing set of blunders founded upon an error made in the Second Century B C.

https://ia902705.us.archive.org/12/items/kingsdethronedhi00hickrich/kingsdethronedhi00hickrich.pdf

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Relative Phantasmagoria
“But I can conceive that in the course of time this Relative Phantasmagoria
might come to be regarded as science,
and be taught as such to the children of the near future.”
~ G. Hickson, April 1921, in reference to
newly proposed Theory of Relativity by Albert Einstein
*****


THE EARTH STANDS STILL

It would seem that Copernican Astronomy had reached its highest development about the year 1882, and then began to decline, or rather, to fall to pieces.

The first evidence of this devolution is to be found in the Michelson-Morley experiment of 1887, at Chicago; the result of which might have undeceived even the most devoted believer in the theory of a spinning earth.

Professor Michelson was one of the physicists foremost in determining the Velocity of Light, while he has recently been described in the New York Times as America’s greatest physicist; and it was he who—working in collaboration with Morley— in 1887 made the most painstaking experiments by means of rays of light for the purpose of testing, verifying, or proving by physical science, what really was the velocity of the earth.

To express this more clearly. Astronomers have for a very long time stated that the earth travels
round the sun with a speed of more than eighteen miles a second, or sixty-six thousand miles an hour.

Without in any way seeking to deny this statement, but really believing it to be thereabouts correct, Michelson and Morley undertook their experiments in order to put it to a practical test; just in the same way as we might say “The greengrocer has sent us a sack of potatoes which is said to contain 112 pounds weight; we will weigh it ourselves to see if that is correct.”

The apparent movement of stars around a still earth

More technically, the experiment was to test what was the velocity with which the earth moved in its orbit round the sun relative to the aether. A very well illustrated account of that experiment will be found in The Sphere, published in London, June 11th, 1921, and it is from that article I quote the following, verbatim :

“But to the experimenters’ surprise no difference was discernible. The experiment was tried through numerous angles, but the motion through the aether was NIL”!

Observe that the means employed represented the best that modern physical science could do to prove the movement of the earth through ethereal space, and the result showed that the earth did not move at all! “The motion through the aether was NIL.

But the world of astronomy has not accepted that result, for it continues to preach the old dogma; it appears that they are willing to accept the decisions of physicists when it suits their case, but reject them when otherwise.

And so they still maintain the fabulous theory that the earth is rushing through space at eleven hundred miles a minute; which, as they would say in America, ” Surely is some traveling.” It must be faster than a bullet from a Lewis gun.

What I have now to record, I do with regret, and only because my sense of duty in the pursuit of truth compels me. It is the circumstance that Sir George Airy, who retired from his position as Astronomer Royal in 1881, related— some nine years later— how he had for some time been harassed by a suspicion that certain errors had crept into some of the computations published in 1866, and that, though he had set himself seriously to the work of revision, his powers were no longer what they had been, and he was never able to examine sufficiently into the work.

Then he spoke of a “grievous error that had been committed in one of the first steps,” and pathetically added —“My spirit in the work was broken, and I have never heartily proceeded with it since.” My sympathy goes out to Sir George in his tribulation of the spirit due to advancing age, while I am not unmindful of myself, for I realize that in him I have lost one who would have been a friend, who would have listened when I said that all was not as it should be with the science of astronomy; and stood by my side, encouraging and helping, when I, younger and stronger, strove to put it right.

I do not know whether Sir George Airy was influenced or not by the result of the Michelson-Morley experiment, but it is at least a noteworthy coincidence that he made those comments only three years later; but in any case science has need of him, and of such evident open-mindedness and sincerity as his, now not content to believe that the earth did not move, further experiments were carried out by Nordmeyer in the year 1903, to test the earth’s velocity in relation to the Intensities of Light from the heavenly bodies, but he also failed to discover any movement.

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Is Sir Isaac Newton’s “Law of Gravity” Just One Great Big 500 Yr. Old Lie?


You do look, my son, in a moved sort, As if you were dismay’d. Be cheerful, sir. Our revels now are ended. These our actors, As I foretold you, were all spirits and Are melted into air, into thin air; And, like the baseless fabric of this vision, The cloud-capp’d towers, the gorgeous palaces, The solemn temples, the great globe itself, Yea, all which it inherit, shall dissolve, And, like this insubstantial pageant faded, Leave not a rack behind. We are such stuff As dreams are made on, and our little life Is rounded with a sleep.

Wm. Shakespeare from the Tempest—Act IV, sc. i

******


Gravity

The name is derived from the Latin word “ gravis,” which means “ heavy,” “ having weight,” while the Law of Gravitation is defined as “ That mutual action between masses of matter by virtue of which every such mass tends toward every other with a force varying directly as the product of the masses, and inversely as the square of their distances apart.”

Empirical Research:
A way of gaining knowledge by means of direct and indirect observation or experience.  Much of Newton’s evidence was collected by observations,directly and indirectly, then with logical reasoning, he made informed decisions….

****

Direct Observations
Newton noted that apples always fall  vertically (straight down). Apples never fall up or sideways. Since the apples are falling in one direction, vertically, instead of speed, scientists call the motion velocity.

Velocity is the speed of a moving object in a certain direction.

A Force is any action (a push or pull) that causes an object to change in speed, change in direction, or change in shape. As long as the force is applied, the speed of the object continues to change; and/or the direction of the object continues to change; and/or the shape of the object continues to change.

Newton’s hypothesis was that some(?) Force was pulling the apples vertically downward.  Newton coined the word “gravity” to name this force.

~ Note that the word “weight” is left out of the definition of Newston’s Law of Gravity.

*****

Big Bang

Gravity, the Primordial Glue of all Life in the Universe

SO, the “Official Universally Accepted Modern Scientific Story of our Creation” as agreed by the highest degrees of academia, physics and astronomical science tells us that after the Big Bang… after atoms were created out nothing, from absolutely nothing….some 14.3 Billion years ago, our entire Universe came to be.

Then the atoms, through unidentified attractions began to hook up (sex atoms?). They then began creating dust particles and gaseous vapors made up primarily of hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen.

All the while exploding outward at the speed of light, projecting in all directions at an unfathomable 670 million miles-per-hour for billions and billions and billions of years .

Out of this Primordial soup stars began to form including our maybe one and only Sun. Then, about 4.5 Billion years ago, so we are told, the Sun spun us off into the ether of space where we flew away from her at such great speeds that we settled some 93 million miles away from him in a locked not so perfect orbit.

Out of this all minerals and gases were formed including our multi’-layered atmosphere, all minerals like gold, and all sentient life as well as life-giving water.

Continue reading

#26B How Did The Kings of Astronomy Get it So Wrong? – Einstein and the Still Earth

Gerrard Hickson
PORTRAIT OF THE AUTHOR, BY HIMSELF
***
It will be remembered how Hipparchus failed to get an angle to the stars 2,000 years ago, and arrived at the conclusion that they must be infinitely distant; and we have seen how that hypothesis has been handed down to us through all the centuries without question.
~ G. Hickson ~
*****

 

This article/post is mostly taken from the work of Gerard Hickson in his 1922 book, “Kings Dethroned”.  He lays clearly, concisely and irrefutably, how astronomer by astronomer in the 16th and 17th centuries began in error by the way they measured distance from Earth to Sun, Moon and planets and then subsequently came up with preposterous theory after theory, over decades, to cover up there errors, that continues to this very day.

From Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Halley, Newton in Europe across the pond in the 1900’s to Einstein and NASA, astronomy has used the same errors in calculating distance of stars and planets in what is called Astrometry.

In the 1920’s, Gerrard Hickson proves conclusively, using their own geometry, math and theories of heliocentrism, gravity, relativity, etc., are gravely in gross error.

In no uncertain terms this work blows apart the Sun centered, Earth a sphere rotating, gravity based heliocentric theory that has been taught in every classroom on our flat plane Earth for the past century or more.

Enjoy!

 

Kings Dethroned: A History of the Evolution of Astronomy from the Time of the Roman Empire Up to the Present Day (1922)

(Original book title)

Kings Dethroned; A History of the Evolution of Astronomy from the time of the Roman Empire up to the present day; showing it to be an amazing set of blunders founded upon an error made in the Second Century B C.

https://ia902705.us.archive.org/12/items/kingsdethronedhi00hickrich/kingsdethronedhi00hickrich.pdf

****

Relative Phantasmagoria
“But I can conceive that in the course of time this Relative Phantasmagoria
might come to be regarded as science,
and be taught as such to the children of the near future.”
~ G. Hickson, April 1921, in reference to
newly proposed Theory of Relativity by Albert Einstein
*****

Continue reading

#25 Is Sir Isaac Newton’s “Law of Gravity” Just One Great Big 500 Yr. Old Lie?


You do look, my son, in a moved sort, As if you were dismay’d. Be cheerful, sir. Our revels now are ended. These our actors, As I foretold you, were all spirits and Are melted into air, into thin air; And, like the baseless fabric of this vision, The cloud-capp’d towers, the gorgeous palaces, The solemn temples, the great globe itself, Yea, all which it inherit, shall dissolve, And, like this insubstantial pageant faded, Leave not a rack behind. We are such stuff As dreams are made on, and our little life Is rounded with a sleep.

Wm. Shakespeare from the Tempest—Act IV, sc. i

******


Gravity

The name is derived from the Latin word “ gravis,” which means “ heavy,” “ having weight,” while the Law of Gravitation is defined as “ That mutual action between masses of matter by virtue of which every such mass tends toward every other with a force varying directly as the product of the masses, and inversely as the square of their distances apart.”

Empirical Research:
A way of gaining knowledge by means of direct and indirect observation or experience.  Much of Newton’s evidence was collected by observations,directly and indirectly, then with logical reasoning, he made informed decisions….

****

Direct Observations
Newton noted that apples always fall  vertically (straight down). Apples never fall up or sideways. Since the apples are falling in one direction, vertically, instead of speed, scientists call the motion velocity.

Velocity is the speed of a moving object in a certain direction.

A Force is any action (a push or pull) that causes an object to change in speed, change in direction, or change in shape. As long as the force is applied, the speed of the object continues to change; and/or the direction of the object continues to change; and/or the shape of the object continues to change.

Newton’s hypothesis was that some(?) Force was pulling the apples vertically downward.  Newton coined the word “gravity” to name this force.

~ Note that the word “weight” is left out of the definition of Newston’s Law of Gravity.

*****

Big Bang

Gravity, the Primordial Glue of all Life in the Universe

SO, the “Official Universally Accepted Modern Scientific Story of our Creation” as agreed by the highest degrees of academia, physics and astronomical science tells us that after the Big Bang… after atoms were created out nothing, from absolutely nothing….some 14.3 Billion years ago, our entire Universe came to be.

Then the atoms, through unidentified attractions began to hook up (sex atoms?). They then began creating dust particles and gaseous vapors made up primarily of hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen.

All the while exploding outward at the speed of light, projecting in all directions at an unfathomable 670 million miles-per-hour for billions and billions and billions of years .

Out of this Primordial soup stars began to form including our maybe one and only Sun. Then, about 4.5 Billion years ago, so we are told, the Sun spun us off into the ether of space where we flew away from her at such great speeds that we settled some 93 million miles away from him in a locked not so perfect orbit.

Out of this all minerals and gases were formed including our multi’-layered atmosphere, all minerals like gold, and all sentient life as well as life-giving water.

Continue reading

#18 Is the Earth a Sphere? Cruisin’ at 30,000 ft.

“….We’ll Be Cruising at 30,000 ft. for the next 4 hours.”

If the Earth were a sphere, airplane pilots would have to constantly correct their altitudes downwards so as to not fly straight off into “outer space!” If the Earth were truly a sphere 25,000 miles circumference curveting 8 inches per mile squared, a pilot wishing to simply maintain their altitude at a typical cruising speed of 500 mph, would have to constantly dip their nose downwards and descend 2,777 feet (over half a mile) every minute! Otherwise, without compensation, in one hour’s time the pilot would find themselves 166,666 feet (31.5 miles) higher than expected!

A plane flying at a typical 35,000 feet wishing to maintain that altitude at the upper-rim of the so-called “Troposphere” in one hour would find themselves over 200,000 feet high into the “Mesosphere” with a steadily raising trajectory the longer they go. I have talked to several pilots, and no such compensation for the Earth’s supposed curvature is ever made. When pilots set an altitude, their artificial horizon gauge remains level and so does their course; nothing like the necessary 2,777 foot per minute declination is ever taken into consideration.

To maintain a 30,000 ft. altitude around a round Earth, the airplane would have to be angled significantly lower than in the rear of the airplane to maintain a 30,000 foot relationship to the Earth’s curvature.

Yet this never, ever happens. When traveling in an airplane it is level form nose to stern.

This means that the Earth is not a globe but is a level piece of land below us while in flight.

If one says that we are in a vacuum and gravity holds us in, then how is plane able to “escape” Earth’s gravity pull upon reaching cruising altitude when NASA tells us that it would require

From the surface of the Earth, escape velocity (ignoring air friction) is about 7 miles per second, or 25,000 miles per hour. Given that initial speed, an object needs no additional force applied to completely escape Earth’s gravity.

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Basic Geometry on a Sphere

The Global Earth theorists for 500 years have been telling us the Earth is a sphere. IF the earth is a globe, and is 25,000 English statute miles in circumference, the surface of all standing water must have a certain degree of convexity–every part must be an arc of a circle.

From the summit of any such arc there will exist a curvature or declination of 8 inches in the first statute mile. In the second mile the fall will be 32 inches; in the third mile, 72 inches, or 6 feet, as shown in the diagram above. Spherical trigonometry dictates that a ball-Earth 25,000 miles in circumference would curvate 8 inches per mile varying inversely with the square of the mile, so after six miles there would be an easily detectable and measurable 16 feet, 8 inches of downward curvature.

To determine how much the Earth falls away on the curve you take miles squared X eight inches. This is an inverse relationship so the farther one travels the greater the distance of feet or miles the Earth will fall away.

Let the distance from T to figure 1 represent 1 mile, and the fall from 1 to A, 8 inches; then the fall from 2 to B will be 32 inches, and from 3 to C, 72 inches. In every mile after the first, the curvature downwards from the point T increases as the square of the distance multiplied by 8 inches. The rule, however, requires to be modified after the first thousand miles. 1

Miles squared X 8 inches
one foot = .000189394 miles

Curvature of Earth
1 mile 5.33 ft.  or .12626 mile

10 miles 66.666 ft. or 1.2626 miles

100 miles 6,666.66 ft. or 12.626 miles

So the farther one travels the greater the drop (or rise) in distance.

****

Non NASA camera records continual Flat Earth on plane

Published on Dec 24, 2014

Check out this excellent amateur balloon footage of our flat, motionless Earth! You can clearly see the Sun is NOT 93 million miles away as we’re told. This is evidenced by the hot-spot seen on the clouds directly underneath the Sun as it moves over the Earth. Over 20 miles high and the horizon remains perfectly flat and rises to the eye-level of the observer all the way up. If the Earth were a ball, no matter how big, the horizon could not rise with the observer like this. On a ball-Earth the horizon would stay where it was and you would have to look DOWN to the horizon further and further the higher you rose.

#8 How Do They Spacewalk While Traveling 17,000 mph?

                     NASA Astronaut, Bruce Candless, Performs First Untethered Spacewalk /Feb 7, 1984 (NASA image)
“Free of any lifeline and propelled into the dark void by tiny jets, they became, in effect, the first human satellites, ” reported the Feb. 8 New York Times.
 *
****
Since the first alleged spacewalk in March 1965, by Soviet Cosmonot, Alexei Leonov, beating out Ed White on Gemini 4 by 3 months, we are told there have been hundreds and hundreds more including walks in space without any tether or connection to their space ships.
  • According to NASA, there have been 187 space walks from the ISS ship alone, the last one recorded was 3/1/15. (source)
  • The International Space Station (ISS)  travels at an average speed of 27,724 kilometres (17,227 mi) per hour, and completes 15.54 orbits per day (93 minutes per orbit).[1][15]
  • Gravity is 90% of Earth’s at these altitudes and the space walks are effected by drag, according to NASA.
So, we are being told that untethered space walks are occurring on a regular, business as usual any day occurrence, while
  • completely detached from the ISS,
  • while traveling at some 17,000 + mph around the earth 130 miles up
  • and have no problem with massive wind shear when they step out of the craft
  • or keeping up with the space trucking ISS doing 15 laps around the earth every day.
WTF?
*****
We are told they keep near the space station with tiny hand held boosters to move around on their space walks and that is what allows them to keep up with the ISS.
***
Dog face distortion at 60 mph…what would 17,000mph do to an astronot?
****
From Wiki:
 There are millions of micro-meteors traveling at speeds as fast as 6000 mph.
More than 500,000 pieces of space debris orbit Earth, traveling at speeds up to 175,000 mph. A small piece of space debris traveling at these velocities could significantly damage a spacecraft or a satellite.
It could also pose a threat to the lives of astronauts living on the International Space Station.
At the low altitudes at which the ISS orbits there are a variety of space debris,[243] consisting of many different objects including entire spent rocket stages, defunct satellites, explosion fragments—including materials from anti-satellite weapon tests, paint flakes, slag from solid rocket motors, and coolant released by US-A nuclear-powered satellites. These objects, in addition to natural micrometeoroids,[244] are a significant threat. (source)

Here is how NASA says that the ships are protected, traveling at 17,200 mph (23,000 ft. per second) with debris traveling at 6,000 mph dodging some 500,000 pieces that would kill an astronot exposed on impact.

Astronauts on the International Space Station have had their own run-ins with micrometeorites, too. Last year, one slammed into one of the station’s giant windows. “Micrometeroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts are part of life in low Earth orbit,” says Space Safety Magazine. “MMOD impacts occur all the time on ISS and other spacecraft, although most are not easily visible through a window. Returning Space Shuttles have shown pock marks from high velocity MMODs.” As humans enter low-Earth orbit with increasing regularity, the threat posed by small bits of space debris—an errant bolt, say—goes up.

To protect satellites and astronauts (and soon, space tourists), engineers have to give the ships some sort of armor. Right now, NASA uses something called “Whipple Shielding”:

In the 1940s, Fred Whipple proposed a meteoroid shield for spacecraft, called the Whipple shield in recognition of his contribution. The Whipple shield consists of a thin, aluminum “sacrificial” wall mounted at a distance from a rear wall. The function of the first sheet or “BUMPER” is to break up the projectile into a cloud of material containing both projectile and BUMPER debris. This cloud expands while moving across the standoff, resulting in the impactor momentum being distributed over a wide area of the rear wall (Figure 2). The back sheet must be thick enough to withstand the blast loading from the debris cloud and any solid fragments that remain.

In updated versions of this design, says NASA, “bulletproof” Kevlar or other materials are placed between the outer sacrificial wall and the inside plate.

The designs amount to, essentially, putting something thick in the way that will hopefully stop the micrometeorite before it can ram its way all the way through your spacecraft. But once that hole is punctured, the strength of the shield is reduced until it can be repaired—not the greatest if you want to leave your satellite up there for years at a time, or you want your commerical space ship to do back-to-back flights. (Source)

A chip of paint at this speed in space would rip a hole in an uprotected astronot! Yet NASA has it all under control, nothing to be concerned with, we’ve done it thousands of times, logging hundreds of hours and no problema!

Look at this hole through a block of aluminum, over 2 inches deep and outwardly exploding.
A 7 gram object (shown in centre) shot at 7 km/s (23,000 ft/sec) (the orbital velocity of the ISS) made this 15 cm (5 7/8 in) crater in a solid block of aluminium, yet NASA says No Problema! we’ve got the Astronots protected at all times because we are constantly tracking the little deadly buggers:
Space debris objects are tracked remotely from the ground, and the station crew can be notified.[248] This allows for a Debris Avoidance Manoeuvre (DAM) to be conducted, which uses thrusters on the Russian Orbital Segment to alter the station’s orbital altitude, avoiding the debris.
DAMs are not uncommon, taking place if computational models show the debris will approach within a certain threat distance. Eight DAMs had been performed prior to March 2009,[249] the first seven between October 1999 and May 2003.[250] Usually the orbit is raised by one or two kilometres by means of an increase in orbital velocity of the order of 1 m/s. Unusually there was a lowering of 1.7 km on 27 August 2008, the first such lowering for 8 years.[250][251]
There were two DAMs in 2009, on 22 March and 17 July.[252] If a threat from orbital debris is identified too late for a DAM to be safely conducted, the station crew close all the hatches aboard the station and retreat into their Soyuz spacecraft, so that they would be able to evacuate in the event the station was seriously damaged by the debris.
 ****

Gravity and Freefall.

Here NASA admits that drag plays a role at that altitude which means it would be impossible for an astronot untethered, or tethered to keep up with the ISS:

The Earth’s gravity is only slightly weaker at the altitude of the ISS than at the surface. However, objects in orbit are in a continuous state of freefall, resulting in an apparent state of weightlessness. This perceived weightlessness is disturbed by five separate effects:[48]

  • Drag from the residual atmosphere; when the ISS enters the Earth’s shadow, the main solar panels are rotated to minimise this aerodynamic drag, helping reduce orbital decay.
  • Vibration from movements of mechanical systems and the crew.
  • Actuation of the on-board attitude control moment gyroscopes.
  • Thruster firings for attitude or orbital changes.
  • Gravity-gradient effects, also known as tidal effects. Items at different locations within the ISS would, if not attached to the station, follow slightly different orbits. Being mechanically interconnected, however, these items experience small forces that keep the station moving as a rigid body.
****
“Hey guys, whose got the beer, it’s break time…”   Whooosh….”Wow just missed another Micrometeroid…. aren’t we the lucky ones..”
Inline image 1
“Look Ma, No hands! and No drag, no friction, no resistance,
no 17,500 mph wind, no space debris, no solar radiation, no stars…
…..no problema…it’s just cool.”
*****
I wonder how those thousand mile rivers and our oceans go uphill like that?
Guess being 130 miles up in space we get to finally see it curved, thanx to NASA CGI dept.
“Man, that Earth is really curved,
Gee the Earth sure got a lot less “curvy” in this NASA picture.

And now it is flat as a pancake in this view from ISS, (NASA images).

“Anyone seen any stars? NASA told us there were billions and billions of them and being in much less Earth atmosphere, we should be seeing them right?”

 ****
Both planes are owned by NASA
Here’s how they fake it on the ISS:

#7 How Does the Moon Always Show us Only One Side If It Rotates?

tumblr_mt86roMSP01r39hw6o1_400

“They want you to believe that the Moon’s rotation is perfectly synchronized with its orbit so that’s why we only ever see one side of the Moon, rather than conclude the obvious – that the Moon is simply NOT rotating. Moreover, they had to slow down the Moon’s speed by 58,870 mph AND reverse its direction to West-East to successfully sell their phony heliocentricity system to a gullible public. I don’t think there is one person in many, many thousands – regardless of education – who knows that the Copernican Model had to turn the Moon’s observable direction around and give it a new speed to accommodate the phases and eclipses.” -Marshall Hall

“The Moon presented a special math problem for the construction of the heliocentricity model. The only way to make the Moon fit in with the other assumptions was to reverse its direction from that of what everyone who has ever lived has seen it go. The math model couldn’t just stop the Moon like it did the Sun, that wouldn’t work. And it couldn’t let it continue to go East to West as we see it go, either at the same speed or at a different speed. The only option was to reverse its observed East to West direction and change its speed from about 64,000 miles an hour to about 2,200 miles an hour. This reversal along with the change in speed were unavoidable assumptions that needed to be adopted if the model was to have a chance of mimicking reality.” -Bernard Brauer    (Source)

Modern Science’s History of the Moon

The moon was formed ~4.5 billion years ago, about 30–50 million years after the origin of the Solar System, out of debris thrown into orbit by a massive collision between a smaller proto-Earth and another planetoid, about the size of Mars.

Initially the Moon spun much faster, but because it is not perfectly spherical and bulges out slightly at its equator, the orbit slowed down and eventually became tidally locked — keeping the same face toward the Earth. Bulges along the Earth-Moon line caused a torque, slowing the Moon spin, much the same way a figure skater gradually opens to decelerate a spin. When the Moon’s spin slowed enough to match its orbital rate, the bulge was in line with Earth, which is why we always see the same side of the Moon. In our solar system, almost all moons spin at the same rate as they orbit.

The Earth would be a very different place if the moon did not exist. Not only did the Earth slow down the Moon’s rotation, but the Moon is slowing down the rotation rate of the Earth. Since the moon’s formation, the Earth has been slowing its rotation due to the friction of the tides caused by the moon, and in reaction to this exchange of energy, the moon has been moving farther away from the Earth. In fact, at the time of the moon’s formation the Earth rotated much faster than it does today; a day on early Earth was only a few hours long. But the Moon, being small in relation to Earth, will take more than twice the age of the solar system to slow Earth’s spin rate to the Moon’s orbital rate.

 “On Earth, we only see one side of the moon because the duration of its rotation is equal to the time it takes to orbit our planet.”

The Moon orbits Earth at a speed of 2,288 miles per hour (3,683 kilometers per hour). During this time it travels a distance of 1,423,000 miles (2,290,000 kilometers). The moon is 1079 miles at Equator and takes 27.321 days to complete one Moon day which equals 10 1/2 mph per single rotation.

According to astronomers, due to the relative slow rotational speed, the moon does not seem to be spinning but appears to observers from Earth to be keeping almost perfectly still.

The moon orbits the Earth once every 27.322 days.  As a result, the moon does not seem to be spinning but appears to observers from Earth to be keeping almost perfectly still. Scientists call this synchronous rotation.

Gravity from Earth pulls on the closest tidal bulge, trying to keep it aligned. This creates tidal friction that slows the moon’s rotation. Over time, the rotation was slowed enough that the moon’s orbit and rotation matched, and the same face became tidally locked, forever pointed toward Earth.

Scientists call this “synchronous rotation”.  (Space.com)

~~~~

So we are told that the Moon is said to be in perfect synchronized rotation with Earth. The Earth is spinning at 1,000 mph per day (24,000 miles at the Equator/24 hours in a day) while the Moon is only spinning at 10.3 mph.

How does that work?  The moon should be showing its back side for half of its 28 day rotation, or 14 days per month. The fact that the Earth is spinning 10X faster means we should be seeing all parts of the moon over the course of 28 days due to its slower rotation.

Yet that is not what science tells us is happening. They claim we see the same face because of SYNCHRONIZATION between the planets.

Huh? This makes no sense at all!!!

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