Category Archives: Sun
We know that the Earth isn’t flat, and have known this for hundreds of years. There are many ways to demonstrate this, from ships’ masts disappearing as they sail out over the horizon, to your ability to see farther at higher altitudes, to the longer shadows cast by the Sun at higher latitudes, to measuring the shape of the Moon’s shadow on the Earth during a solar eclipse, to actually going to space and seeing the shape of the Earth for yourself.
But just because the Earth isn’t flat doesn’t necessarily mean a planet couldn’t be. In fact, there are many observations that we make that would be consistent with a flat, circular Earth.
So how close could we actually get to a flat planet? One strategy would be to take a solid slab of material — stone, steel, or something even harder like diamond or graphene — and build the largest flat disk you could. If you used conventional materials like this, you could create a thin, flat disk many hundreds of kilometers in radius that was stable. In other words, you could make a flat world that was larger than any object in our asteroid belt, and possibly even nearly the size of our Moon.
But it wouldn’t be a planet if you did it that way. Back in 2006, we famously set forth the three criteria for defining a planet. (That definition has since been extended to exoplanets, too!) In order to be a planet, a world:
- must be in orbit around the Sun (and not any other body like another planet),
- must have sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium shape (round, or oblate/prolate in the case of a rapid rotation), and
- must clear the neighborhood around its orbit (so that there are no other comparably large bodies also in/near its orbit).
That second part of the definition is what fails for our specially-created flat, thin world. If it isn’t massive enough to pull itself into hydrostatic equilibrium, it can’t be classified as a planet.
But there is a way to create a relatively flat planet: have it spin. Here on Earth, our planet is a relatively slow spinner: it takes 24 hours for us to rotate a full 360°. This means that a person living on the equator, the maximal distance from the Earth’s axis of rotation, experiences an extra speed of 464 meters per second (about 1,000 miles per hour) compared to someone at the poles. This extra speed affects the entire shape of the Earth, and causes it to elongate into a shape known as an oblate spheroid: a near-perfect sphere that’s flattened at the poles and elongated at the equator.
The diameter of the Earth at the equator is 12,756 km, while at the poles its only 12,714 km. You are 21 kilometers closer to the center of the Earth standing at the North Pole than you are at the equator. This doesn’t seem like much, but there are worlds out there that rotate far faster. The gas giants all rotate quite quickly, with Saturn’s poles compressed by 10% relative to its equator.
Space is fake? Fake Satellites and Nasa CGI Planets
February 12, 2017
Satellites are purely science-fiction. All supposed images of satellites in orbit show fake CGI “satellites” orbiting a fake CGI “ball-Earth.” First conceived by Freemason science-fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke in 1945, they claim satellites became science-fact soon after. This is impossible for many reasons outlined in the following video, however, including the fact the melting points of the metals used in satellites are far lower than the temperature in the “thermosphere” where satellites supposedly are. Satellites, space stations, the Hubble telescope and space travel in general are absolutely the biggest hoaxes of the century, and NASA the most successful propaganda organization in history
For thousands of years the “planets” were known as “wandering stars” as they differ from the fixed stars in their relative motions only. Through a telescope both the fixed stars and wandering “planets” appear as nothing more than tiny round dots of light, luminaries, circling the night sky. They do NOT appear in any way to be spherical Earth-like terra firma capable of landing on as the Freemasons at NASA would have us believe with their fake CGI pictures and videos. The following video exposes the entire deception proving that Earth is in fact a plane and “planets” do not exist! They just added a “T” and you fell for it
Watch the following compilation of NASA’s fake CGI spinning ball-Earth compared with actual amateur balloon footage from space, showing the Earth to be completely flat and motionless, and NASA to be the most successful liars in history: http://www.atlanteanconspiracy.com/20…
For thousands of years the “planets” were known as “wandering stars” as they differ from the fixed stars in their relative motions only. Through a telescope both the fixed stars and wandering “planets” appear as nothing more than tiny round dots of light, luminaries, circling the night sky. They do NOT appear in any way to be spherical Earth-like terra firma capable of landing on as the Freemasons at NASA would have us believe with their fake CGI pictures and videos. The following video exposes the entire deception proving that Earth is in fact a plane and “planets” do not exist! They just added a “T” and you fell for it.
Copyright 1980 Robert J. Schadewald
Reprinted from Science Digest, July 1980
“The facts are simple,” says Charles K. Johnson, president of the International Flat Earth Research Society. “The earth is flat.”
As you stand in his front yard, it is hard to argue the point. From among the Joshua trees, creosote bushes, and tumbleweeds surrounding his southern California hillside home, you have a spectacular view of the Mojave Desert. It looks as flat as a pool table. Nearly 20 miles to the west lies the small city of Lancaster; you can see right over it. Beyond Lancaster, 20 more miles as the cueball rolls, the Tehachepi Mountains rise up from the desert floor. Los Angeles is not far to the south.
Near Lancaster, you see the Rockwell International plant where the Space Shuttle was built. To the north, beyond the next hill, lies Edwards Air Force Base, where the Shuttle was tested. There, also, the Shuttle will land when it returns from orbiting the earth. (At least, that’s NASA’s story.)
“You can’t orbit a flat earth,” says Mr. Johnson. “The Space Shuttle is a joke—and a very ludicrous joke.”
His soft voice carries conviction, for Charles Johnson is on the level. He believes that the main purpose of the space program is to prop up a dying myth—the myth that the earth is a globe.
“Nobody knows anything about the true shape of the world,” he contends. “The known, inhabited world is flat. Just as a guess, I’d say that the dome of heaven is about 4,000 miles away, and the stars are about as far as San Francisco is from Boston.”
As shown in a map published by Johnson, the known world is as circular and as flat as a phonograph record. The North Pole is at the center. At the outer edge lies the southern ice, reputed to be a wall 150 feet high; no one has ever crossed it, and therefore what lies beyond is unknown.
The sun and moon, in the Johnson version, are only about 32 miles in diameter. They circle above the earth in the vicinity of the equator, and their apparent rising and setting are tricks of perspective, like railroad tracks that appear to meet in the distance. The moon shines by its own light and is not eclipsed by the earth. Rather, lunar eclipses are caused by an unseen dark body occasionally passing in front of the moon.
Johnson’s beliefs are firmly grounded in the Bible. Many verses of the Old Testament imply that the earth is flat, but there’s more to it than that. According to the New Testament, Jesus ascended up into heaven.
“The whole point of the Copernican theory is to get rid of Jesus by saying there is no up and no down,” declares Johnson. “The spinning ball thing just makes the whole Bible a big joke.”
Not the Bible but Johnson’s own common sense allowed him to see through the globe myth while he was still in grade school. He contends that sensible people all over the world, not just Bible believers, realize that the earth really is flat.
“Wherever you find people with a great reservoir of common sense,” he says, “they don’t believe idiotic things such as the earth spinning around the sun. Reasonable, intelligent people have always recognized that the earth is flat.”
He pauses for a sip of coffee, his eyes sparkling with animation. At 56, Charles Johnson is a bearded, distinguished-looking man who drinks coffee seemingly by the gallon. He chain-smokes, hand-rolling cigarettes so skillfully that they seem factory made. Unlike the stereotypical prophet, he has a wry sense of humor and a booming laugh. Fond of plays on words, he consistently pronounces Nicolaus Koppernigk’s Latinized surname as “co-pernicious.”
The Flat Earth Society’s presidency descended upon Charles Johnson in accord with the last wishes of its founder, Samuel Shenton, an Englishman who died in 1971. The society, which will round out a quarter-century next year, is a spiritual inheritor of the Universal Zetetic Society, which flourished in England in the last century.
The cosmos of the Zetetics.
Picture © 1992 by Robert Schadewald.
Under Johnson’s full-time presidency, the society’s paid-up membership has grown from a few persons to a few hundred. Membership is open to anyone who is regarded as sincerely seeking the truth; prospective members must sign a statement agreeing never to defame the society. Part of the $10 annual dues pays for a subscription to the Flat Earth News, a marvelously outspoken four-page tabloid quarterly with an editorial style reminiscent of 19th-century rural journalism.
Johnson’s office is barely controlled chaos. Books, papers, and files are everywhere; his desk is covered with correspondence. The flow of letters, still increasing, now runs around 2,000 a year, or a half-dozen every day. Some are properly addressed (Box 2533, Lancaster, CA 93534), but he receives any mail that reaches Lancaster with “flat-earth” on it. And such letters sometimes come from the far edges of the world (an expression which Johnson and his membership accept quite literally). Rummaging in a box on the floor, Johnson produces inquiries from Saudi Arabia, Iran, India.
“Everybody who writes gets an answer,” he reports. “An application or whatever is called for. We serve our purpose in keeping it alive. Whosoever asks, receives.” The “we” includes his wife, Marjory, who is a native of Australia. The Johnsons met by chance in 1959, when they both went into a San Francisco store to buy the same record, Acker Bilk’s haunting “Stranger on the Shore.” They discovered that they had more in common than their tastes in music. They’re both vegetarians, for one thing, but the overriding interest is geography
“Marjory has always known that the earth is flat, too,” says Charles Johnson. “As far as she knew, everybody in Australia knew it. She was rather shocked when she arrived here and found people speaking of Australia as being ‘down under.’ It really offended her. She would get in quite heated arguments with people who seemed to accuse her of coming from down under the world.” Ultimately, Marjory Johnson swore in an affidavit that she had never hung by her feet in Australia.
As secretary of the Flat Earth Society, she assists in running it, and writes a regular column in the News. She has also helped her husband perform experiments to determine the earth’s shape. If it is a sphere, the surface of a large body of water must be curved. The Johnsons have checked the surfaces of Lake Tahoe and the Salton Sea (a shallow salt lake in southern California near the Mexican border) without detecting any curvature.