# 17 If A Flat Earth, Why Does the Sun Go Down?


The Sun never sets or rises, it stays the same distance over the Earth throughout it’s daily/annual journeys around. The appearance of rising and setting is all based on the law of perspective on plane surfaces. The Sun and Moon spotlights are perpetually hovering over and parallel to the surface of the Earth.

From our vantage point, due to the Law of Perspective, the day/night luminaries appear to rise up the Eastern horizon, curve peaking high overhead, and then sink below the Western horizon. They do not escape to the underside of the Flat-Earth as one might imagine, but rather rotate concentric clockwise circles around the circumference from tropic to tropic.  ~ Eric Dubay.

Sun Over horizon on Flat Earth explained

“Although the Sun is at all times above and parallel to the Earth’s surface, he appears to ascend the firmament from morning until noon, and to descend and sink below the horizon at evening. This arises from a simple and everywhere visible law of perspective. A flock of birds, when passing over a flat or marshy country, always appears to descend as it recedes; and if the flock is extensive, the first bird appears lower, or nearer to the horizon than the last. The farthest light in a row of lamps appears the lowest, although each one has the same altitude. Bearing these phenomena in mind, it will easily be seen how the Sun, although always parallel to the surface of the Earth, must appear to ascend when approaching, and descend after leaving the meridian or noon-day position.” -Dr. Samuel Rowbotham, “Earth Not a Globe, 2nd Edition” (85)

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Law of Perspective

“This law of Perspective meets us on every hand; and cannot be gainsaid.

If, in a straight line, we look at a frozen lake from a certain distance, we shall observe people who appear to be skating on their knees, but, if we approach sufficiently near, we shall see them performing graceful motions on their feet. Farther, if we look through a straight tunnel, we shall notice that the roof and the roadway below converge to a point of light at the end.

It is the same law which makes the hills sink, to the horizon, as the observer recedes, which explains how the ship’s hull disappears in the offing. I would also remark that when the sea is undisturbed by waves, the hull can be restored to sight by the aid of a good telescope long after it has disappeared from the naked eye, thus proving that the ship had not gone down behind the watery hill of a convex globe, but is still sailing on the level of a Plane sea.” -David Wardlaw Scott, “Terra Firma” (75)

“What can be more common than the observation that, standing at one end of a long row of lamp-posts, those nearest to us seem to be the highest; and those farthest away the lowest; whilst, as we move along towards the opposite end of the series, those which we approach seem to get higher, and those we are leaving behind appear to gradually become lower … It is an ordinary effect of perspective for an object to appear lower and lower as the observer goes farther and farther away from it.

Let any one try the experiment of looking at a light-house, church spire, monument, gas lamp, or other elevated object, from a distance of only a few yards, and notice the angle at which it is observed. On going farther away, the angle under which it is seen will diminish, and the object will appear lower and lower as the distance of the observer increases, until, at a certain point, the line of sight to the object, and the apparently uprising surface of the earth upon or over which it stands, will converge to the angle which constitutes the ‘vanishing point’ or the horizon; beyond which it will be invisible.” -Dr. Samuel Rowbotham, “Zetetic Astronomy, Earth Not a Globe!” (230-1)


Why A Ship Appears to Go Down Over the Horizon

  “Another favorite “proof” of ball-Earthers is the appearance from an observer on shore of ships’ hulls being obfuscated by the water and disappearing from view when sailing away towards the horizon. Their claim is that ship’s hulls disappear before their mast-heads because the ship is beginning its declination around the convex curvature of the ball-Earth.

Once again, however, their hasty conclusion is drawn from a faulty premise, namely that only on a ball-Earth can this phenomenon occur. The fact of the matter is that the Law of Perspective on plane surfaces dictates and necessitates the exact same occurrence. For example a girl wearing a dress walking away towards the horizon will appear to sink into the Earth the farther away she walks. Her feet will disappear from view first and the distance between the ground and the bottom of her dress will gradually diminish until after about half a mile it seems like her dress is touching the ground as she walks on invisible legs.

The same happens with cars speeding away, the axles gradually get lower and the wheels vanish until it appears as if the car is gliding along its body. Such is the case on plane surfaces, the lowest parts of objects receding from a given point of observation necessarily disappear before the highest.”  ~ Eric Dubay, Flat Earth Conspiracy


“Although the Sun is at all times above and parallel to the Earth’s surface, he appears to ascend the firmament from morning until noon, and to descend and sink below the horizon at evening. This arises from a simple and everywhere visible law of perspective. A flock of birds, when passing over a flat or marshy country, always appears to descend as it recedes; and if the flock is extensive, the first bird appears lower, or nearer to the horizon than the last.

The farthest light in a row of lamps appears the lowest, although each one has the same altitude. Bearing these phenomena in mind, it will easily be seen how the Sun, although always parallel to the surface of the Earth, must appear to ascend when approaching, and descend after leaving the meridian or noon-day position.” -Dr. Samuel Rowbotham, “Earth Not a Globe, 2nd Edition” (85)

Clouds at distance appear to be going down on the horizon.

Same with the Sun. Yet it is really just following a circle away.

553 thoughts on “# 17 If A Flat Earth, Why Does the Sun Go Down?

  1. Gaura Ellingsen December 10, 2016 at 8:05 pm Reply

    Dr. Zack – YouTube


  2. Barry Stephen December 10, 2016 at 11:00 pm Reply

    That doesn’t explain if.

    Liked by 1 person

  3. Gaura Ellingsen December 11, 2016 at 12:14 am Reply
  4. Gaura Ellingsen December 11, 2016 at 12:29 am Reply

    One thing is general: There seems a certain human arrogance that affects us, especially nowadays with the event of so-called science, of us expecting to fully comprehend and explain the earth and the universe with the use of our limited faculties. The truth is that we are stuck on this planet looking at very distant dots of light through limited instruments and speculating what we are seeing and then teaching those speculation as “truth” in our academic programs. But the truth is that we can’t even understand our own bodies, what to speak of the infinitely greater Earth and the Universe. Those will always be beyond our conception, merely because we are too small and limited. Even if we built the most sophisticated instruments, they are still built by us who are limited and so not adequate, and we would still be using our limited faculties to read off those instruments. So we can aspire for an explanation to help us get a basic understanding, but we should not ever expect a full, exhaustive explanation. Even if we get such an explanation, we won’t be able to fully grasp it.


    • BurntToast December 13, 2016 at 11:46 pm Reply


      Please feel free to speak for yourself. However, there are plenty of people who are capable of understanding things that you may find unknowable.

      There are also brilliant researchers and scientists who will always know more than most of us on a somewhat narrow topic like health, disease, virus, and the like, and who are dedicated to improving our collective lot in life, and society as a whole.

      A more direct and obvious example might be those who discovered and brought forth technologies where we can use small and powerful computers to communicate across the world without ever really knowing how these devices work. Be glad for such benefits of knowledge from others, to all our benefit.


  5. Barry Stephen December 11, 2016 at 7:53 am Reply

    I understand what he is trying to say.
    It really doesn’t explain it.

    Liked by 1 person

  6. HappyBirthday December 12, 2016 at 5:42 am Reply

    Hi to those who are interested in a visual depiction of the flat earth and the way the sun and moon operate. But you should know that this video shows good reasons why the flat earth model that I’ve read about on this blog is not possible. Maybe we can talk about it.


    • BurntToast December 19, 2016 at 5:15 am Reply

      I don’t know how how one can argue with the differences in actual observations vs. what FE model presents. Only one set of facts can be real, and we can all see reality with our own eyes.

      Liked by 1 person

      • asddsa3a January 16, 2017 at 2:56 am

        You are an idiot! You can type your illogical comment because people work with theoretical things you cannot see all the time. Can you see electrons flowing through your computer? You cannot, but this doesn’t stop your retarded comments to appear on your screen.


  7. Barry Stephen December 13, 2016 at 3:20 pm Reply

    Maybe you should get an 8 year old to explain the question.
    Apparently you don’t understand it.


  8. Barry Stephen December 13, 2016 at 3:23 pm Reply

    I know.
    You didn’t understand my question it would seem.


  9. Gaura Ellingsen December 14, 2016 at 6:04 am Reply

    You are welcome to dream, thats fine, but I was talking from a non-intoxicated perspective of what our real position is, of that of utter insignificance within the Universe.


  10. Curious jack December 17, 2016 at 2:57 pm Reply

    1. That’s not how perspective and vanishing points work. You can easily demonstrate it with any kind of computer program that allows you to play with 3D assets and light sources. Any game maker will do. You’re just making shit up.

    2. If the world was flat, and I was close to the North Pole, say in yellow knife Canada or Siberia, would I be able to see the sun all day everyday, as it spins around the earth?

    3. Actually, if the earth was flat wouldn’t it be sunny all day everyday?


  11. Graynomad December 24, 2016 at 12:35 am Reply

    Biggest load of bollocks I’ve ever heard. On a flat plane the girl’s legs don’t “appear to sink into the Earth the farther away she walks”, her entire body just gets smaller proportionately.

    And the camera is placed below the plane of the table, so of course objects will start to be covered as they move away.


  12. Khaled Fouad January 28, 2017 at 10:23 am Reply

    First,if the earth is flat how do sunrise and sunset be at the same angle?
    Second,how does south pole be day and night for six months each?


  13. SlowBro February 5, 2017 at 5:15 pm Reply

    The video is an insult to our intelligence. That camera could not possibly be at level with the table top, it must be below. On a flat earth people stand on the surface, not below it, to watch the sun set. But don’t believe me, try this for yourself and see.


  14. Brolyn February 10, 2017 at 7:23 am Reply

    Youtube decreased my video view count by 90 percent. A video explaining an experiment on how to prove the shape of the earth please watch it’s only 2:00 long https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=XUQTJRRu29E


  15. Gaura February 10, 2017 at 12:02 pm Reply

    check out Steve Torrence youtube channel that scientifically explains among other things sunrise and sunset on a flat earth:



  16. Fred February 17, 2017 at 6:40 pm Reply

    Radical! So now we are supposed to believe this “amature” that NASA hired a massive team to create millions and millions of fake images, or record millions and millions of fake videos. This sounds stupid, what is he goal of spending billions of dollars just to make people think the Earth is round. What do you accomplish??? Also don’t you think that at least someone will “break the ice” and attest that the Earth in reality is flat. But guess what, that hasn’t happened. Now i want to share an interesting fact:
    I love observing other planets in the solar system. And here is the complication that occurs when observing Jupiter for instance. Since, you always want proof that you can test, i will give it to you now. All you need is a cheap 200 dollar telescope. When i navigate to Jupiter and look at it through the telescope i see Jupiter and 3 other moons orbiting it. I saw this with my own eyes you cannot say that I am lying. But here’s the good part. When i look at jupiter 2 hours later, I SEE A DIFFERENT FACE. Jupiter’s day is 10 hrs, so it makes sense why i see a different face. Also the position of the moons changed. This is mindblowing evidence shows that Jupiter is a sphere. The same can be done to other planets. So if other planets are sphere’s how come Earth isn’t.

    Another fact:
    During a certain time of the year when observing mars you can see mars moving in one direction relative to Earth, but then it reverses and moves in a different direction. Whaaatttt? But this is easily explained with round Earth model. Earth rotates around the sun faster than mars, therefore, as Earth is on one side of the sun, its orbit is in opposite direction of mars. So mars moves in one direction, but then Earth’s starts “outrunning” mar’s orbit and mars seems to move back. But how does your model explain this???? I must know.
    There is more, but this is enough for now.

    Be wise not smart.


  17. Sebastian Lindner February 20, 2017 at 5:57 pm Reply

    There is evidence of an understanding of a spherical earth by Greek mathematicians as early 5 or 6 hundred B.C . By the age of Christianity a spherical earth was the standard understanding among civilized societies, but small groups of people (not including indigenous groups that did not have the mathematical capabilities of other societies) also claimed the earth was flat based on religion or what ever, just like today.

    This was before photos by NASA, advanced measurement tools, 2000 years of scientific thinking and innovation, or any real evidence really; just basic rational observations and logical mathematics. If some people back then didn’t understand the math and still believed in a flat earth, fine. There is no excuse other than total ignorance today.


  18. David March 3, 2017 at 4:00 pm Reply

    If the sun was moving away from us during the course of a day would it appear to get smaller as it approaches the horizon? If the earth is flat why the does sun remain the same size from dawn to noon to dusk?


    • HappyBirthday March 4, 2017 at 3:03 pm Reply

      Good observation. Along that same line of thinking, could a telescope follow the sun and measure its size from sun up to sundown? In flat earth theory, it should get smaller and smaller until you can’t see it anymore. But it’s still up there. A telescope should be able to see the sun along its entire circuit. Why isn’t there video of this common phenomenon?


  19. G Farmer March 6, 2017 at 3:36 am Reply

    But if the sun is moving away, why does it not gradually get smaller before “setting”?


  20. Philippe March 10, 2017 at 3:59 am Reply

    I came to the conclusion after months of research that it’s easier to understand the Earth mechanics with the flat model versus the globe model. How can I continue to believe that under my feet on the opposite side of the earth where I am standing there are buildings, tunnels, bridges, railroads, canals, lakes, rivers and oceans upside down held together by some magical energy. Sorry but I can’t buy it anymore.
    I will never forget these words by whom they were written.
    “The flat earth floating tremulously on the sea, the sun moving always over it, giving day when near enough, and night when too far off; the self luminous moon, with a semi-transparent invisible moon created to give her an eclipse now and then; the new law of perspective, by which the vanishing of the hull before the masts, usually thought to prove the earth globular, really proves it flat; all these and other things are well fitted to form exercises in learning the elements of astronomy.
    Augustus De Morgan, Professor of Mathematics in Cambridge University, President of the Royal Astronomical Society, F.R.A.S., &c., &c.–Athenaeum Journal for October 12, 1872


    • Tom March 10, 2017 at 4:34 am Reply


      I’m glad to hear again of your comment “it’s easier to understand the Earth mechanics with the flat model versus the globe model.”

      What don’t see is where you share this understanding of any actual “mechanics” on how the FE is able to produce everyday observations. I’ve asked you earlier to clarify just some of these basic observations on a different thread (the-hubble-telescope-hoax), but you’ve failed to respond so far.

      I do hope this is not due to difficulties with these “mechanics” that you have such faith in, and we all look forward to learning from your example of what this is all about.


  21. Mike March 11, 2017 at 1:06 am Reply

    Phillipe – It is amazing that a Professor of Mathematics could give such a favourable opinion of flat Earth theory. In fact, too amazing. Rowbotham was selectively quoting De Morgan’s opinion of Zetetic Astronomy – a bit like the movie poster quoting, “…action packed from beginning to end…”, when the review reads, “If you want a movie that is action packed from beginning to end, this is not the movie for you.” Rowbotham could get away with it because De Morgan died in 1871. At the time you would have had to search out the “Athenaeum Journal” to check, but now, 10 minutes on Google found what he REALLY wrote:

    “The Zetetic Astronomy has come into my hands. When, in 1851, I went to see the Graet Exhibition, I heard an organ played by a performer who seemed very desirous to exhibit one particular stop. “What do you think of that stop?” I was asked. – “That depends on the name of it,” said I. – “Oh! what can the name have to do with the sound? ‘that which we call a rose,’ etc.” – “The name has everything to do with it: if it be a flute-stop, I think it very harsh; but if it be a railway-whistle-stop, I think it very sweet.” So as to this book: if it be childish, it is clever; if it is mannish, it is unusually foolish. The flat earth, floating tremulously on the sea; the sun moving always over the flat, giving day when near enough, and night when too far off; the self-luminous moon, with a semi-transparent invisible moon, created to give her an eclipse now and then; the new law of perspective, by which the vanishing of the hull before the masts, usually thought to prove the earth globular, really proves it flat; – all these and other things are well fitted to form exercises for a person who is learning the elements of astronomy. The manner in which the sun dips into the sea, especially in tropical climates, upsets the whole. Mungo Park, I think, gives an African hypothesis which explains phenomena better than this. The sun dips into the western ocean, and the people there cut him in pieces, fry him in a pan, and then join him together again, take him round the underway, and set him up in the east. I hope this book will be read, and that many will be puzzled by it: for there are many whose notions of astronomy deserve no better fate. There is no subject on which there is so little accurate conception as that of the motions of the heavenly bodies. The author, though confident in the extreme, neither impeaches the honesty of those whose opinions he assails, nor allots them any future inconvenience: in these points he is worthy to live on a globe, and to revolve in twenty-four hours.” A Budget of Paradoxes, Augustus de Morgan. Page 91-2 https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=QedToLwkhboC&q=The+flat+earth+floating+tremulously+#v=onepage&q=The%20flat%20earth%20floating%20tremulously%20&f=false

    So his real opinion was, “unusually foolish”, a worse hypothesis than that the sun is fried “in a pan” each evening and that Rowbotham offers no “future inconvenience” to the globe theory! So, Rowbotham was not only a charlatan, but a dishonest man too!


    • Tom March 11, 2017 at 4:44 am Reply

      Mike – if I fully understand your comment; Rowbotham is now a known fraud and charlatan, and his words are to be discounted and treated with skepticism. How interesting.


  22. Kevin March 11, 2017 at 1:41 pm Reply

    This could make some sense if the sun appeared to shrink into nothing as it set into the distance, but fortunately, the sun tends to appear to be the same size, if not larger, as it descends.

    Don’t brush this off as one small chink in your armor. The sun is the light bringer, and it even dissolves the silhouette of your mistaken view.


    • HappyBirthday March 11, 2017 at 5:54 pm Reply

      Kevin, from the many flat earth videos I’ve seen, and the many flat earth comments I’ve read, your exquisite point is one that has never been explained fully. The only thing I can think of is that the non shrinking sun is somehow an optical illusion of sorts. Similar to how our brains are tricked into seeing a gigantic harvest moon, when the size of the moon also doesn’t change. It’s just lower on the horizon. I don’t fully understand that but what other explanation is there?
      Does the flat earth sun move away from us and appear to shrink into nothingness, and thus produce night /darkness, all the while staying the same apparent size and dropping down over the horizon? Is this all just an optical illusion?
      Or is flat earth theory some kind of government program to see how gullible we are in order to drop a serious hoax into our laps and expect us to buy it, hook line and sinker?
      My opinion? The latter.
      Let’s not be fooled.


      • Mike March 11, 2017 at 6:56 pm

        A GOVERNMENT program?! Its just an internet phenomenon: some people are so limited in scientific understanding that they will believe, literally, ANYTHING they are told with a convincing sounding video!!!


      • Tom March 11, 2017 at 7:03 pm


        There is no such thing as a flat earth “theory”, in the scientific sense of that word. One might be accurate to refer to it as a model or idea or conjecture, but theory is too much of a stretch.

        As far as brains being tricked, that can go in any direction. That is especially so when evidence and accurate information (avoiding the popular vernacular of a “fake news” approach) is always included with claims and beliefs.

        You’ve offered up serious questions, which deserve serious answers (any volunteers out there).

        A personal opinion belongs to one person, as is their right, but isn’t applicable to shared understanding among other people.


  23. Tomassino March 21, 2017 at 7:04 pm Reply

    Just a tought- if the earth is really flat, the sun never can go over the horizon as big as it is.?
    If we can zoom in (lets say 80x) the boats on the sea from the vanishing point to the field of wiew, we have to be able zoom the sun also, it must just be in the bigger and bigger distance by sundown, should be smaller and smaller and not going below the horizon in his actual size.
    We zoom it in- we have to withdraw it from the vanishing point same as the boat- I mean it should come from the point size to the circle, we zoom back- it should be back from the circle to the point size.
    Never seen this- anybody does?
    In every video I have seen just the sun goes down in half-circle size, in case somebody zoomed in- it never grooved back to even slightly more complete circle, stays in half-circle, just in bigger dimensions via the zoom, never the shape
    Any thougths?

    Thx, and sorry for my english, I hope anybody understood me.


    • Tom March 21, 2017 at 11:09 pm Reply


      I have some evidence to share on the last point you mention.

      Here is a set of photos from a sunset in Costa Rica in Jan 31, 2017, from 18:49:56 until 18:55:24. The first portion is wide-angle (normal) with the sun above the horizon. When the sun meets the horizon, I zoom in for close and accurate viewing of the sum image.


      During the entire 5-6 minutes, the sun image goes from a full circle above the horizon, through partial disk images (growing ever smaller), until there is only the topmost portion of the sun visible.

      The sum image is obviously fully visible, but becomes more and more blocked by the horizon. All the while, the image visible to us retains its relative shape as the topmost portion of a circle.

      There is no is disappearing into the distance, just disappearing below the horizon.

      It was a truly beautiful sight to behold, available to all of us at one time or another, day-in and day-out, across all our life-times.


      • HappyBirthday March 22, 2017 at 1:51 am

        Tom, just to be sure I understand. It looks like the photos you posted confirm that the earth can’t be flat because the sun does not shrink into a dot (as one might expect if the earth was flat and the sun always overhead) but instead dips below the horizon remaining the same apparent size.


      • Tom March 22, 2017 at 2:52 am


        That is what I saw and what the photos show. The evidence seems very clear, and I know of no other explanation of this visual evidence.


      • HappyBirthday March 22, 2017 at 3:13 am

        Thanks, Tom. It’s what I’m seeing as well.
        This seems to be the smoking gun.
        Flat earthers can’t credibly show how their sun works when what we see with our own eyes tells a much different story.
        I’d be happy to see any argument that supplants this


  24. Tomassino March 22, 2017 at 4:33 am Reply

    Thx, this seems to me as in this case the evidence works for the globe.

    Another one will be like this- in summer solstice day- we have to observe the sun on the capricorn or cancer- circle point (which one is with the sun above in the north hemisphere) and measure if it goes:in straight line above our head from set till down.
    If the earth is a plane and the system is with the circling sun- it must go from slight left in morning to overhead in the noon and to the slight right in evening- because it rotates with the centre above the pole?
    Same situation 1/2 year later on the other circle, and there must be difference, because in this model the sun is on the path with larger diameter, it should start more in the left and finish more in the right in the evening than in the summer in the north.

    This and my above question are for me sign that the system is maybe different then presented by the Eric-Dubay side.

    But there stays alot of topic, where the flat model works better then the round one….:-)
    Maybe it is flat, but the sun and moon works different?


    • Mike March 26, 2017 at 12:41 am Reply

      Tomassino, can you give one topic where the flat model works at all?


      • Tomassino March 26, 2017 at 8:07 am

        ok, I should have written it works for me, because I am looking for truth….
        Because to do this- we have to define what is the truth as the term, then we can find out how does it look like.

        I am not taking place in the F.E. vs G.E. match, is not a game in my opinion, because this ones there are playing do not agree with the rules- the rules are not given…

        So for me- 46 years of observation the world arround me and not questioning the simpliest questions was the first thing, I realized it was the wrong way to live.
        Since my first school day, I simply accepted, nothing more.
        As the years flow, there was no time to think about, but last year it happened.

        1) The ammount of the curvature.
        Who and when and how did measure it?
        Who and when and how hoverified it?
        (Most important value for us, to how we should build things, how we can live on)

        2) The G
        Who and when and how did measure it?
        Who and when and how hoverified it?
        (Most importand value for the solar system- how it works and how it looks like)

        3) Why in some cases, we have to follow the basics of Newtons laws, and In same other cases we have to ignore them to let things we see work.
        (Gyro, Coriollis, Focaults experiments, space travel vs. earth rotations…)

        4) Why there aro no compasses, they work with the south pole?
        Must be easy just put a “south oriented” pointer inside, but this is never the case, the interaction is allways between the north pole and the pointer, NEVER between the south pole and the pointer. (we go south we never folllow the south, we just go away from north, on the bipolar globe there should work allso the other system as well?)

        5) Why is physics longer not physics, today we are just solving mathematical equations then making real experiments, we are just caged in same kind of mathematical model, we see things works simple, but we are told they are working in a differnt, very complicated way.

        Just a few samples- for all this and lot of other simple reasons the truth for me loooks like the G.E. does not work better then the flat one.

        And to the truth as written in above- it is just the interaction between a mind (senses) and the outer world.
        It can be different from anybody other truth- the world we expierience is the same, but our minds are different- therefore there cannot be a commonly valid truth, it is allways the faith (or belief), no rules for the game.

        We can debate, we can disagree, but nobody wins the match- the final proof stays hidden (for now).

        Sorry for my english, but hopefully you can cath my minds.



      • Paulo March 28, 2017 at 3:01 pm

        How can you see an island (e.g.) 50 miles and over away from you? How does the curvature of the Earth work in this situation?…


      • Mike March 28, 2017 at 7:00 pm

        Tomassino, don’t worry about your English – it beats anything I could do in any other language by a long way!

        Let me try to answer your points.

        1) The amount of curvature is hard to measure directly, due to the fact that light does not travel in straight lines. The effect of refraction depends upon atmospheric conditions, but always tends to bend light down, whic h reduces the visible curvature. This is a long observed phenomenon, due to the decreasing density of air as you move away from the Earth’s surface (the reason why you need oxygen to climb mount Everest and aeroplanes are pressurised).

        As a result, the curvature has been calculated from size of the Earth determined by other means. More recently, satellites and, in particular, GPS has meant that the variations from a perfect sphere have been better determined by geodetics. Any such variations would make GPS readings (particularly elevation above sea level) inaccurate unless they are taken into account. For example: “I’m an engineer and I worked on the London Olympics. Although no individual structure had to take into account the curvature of the earth, the site did. There were two grid systems used, a parkwide grid (accounting for curvature) and each structure had a local grid which did not.” (https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/29jrhq/how_if_at_all_do_architects_of_large_buildings/)

        2) The value of “G” (the gravitational constant) is difficult to determine because gravity is a small effect unless the mass of one of the bodies is very large (such as the Earth, the Moon or the Sun). It has been determined since Cavendish at the end of the 18th century.

        For movement within the solar system, “G” is not really important. What is needed is G x m, the product of G and the mass of an astronomical body. This is calculated from observations.

        3) “Why in some cases, we have to follow the basics of Newtons laws, and In same other cases we have to ignore them to let things we see work.
        (Gyro, Coriollis, Focaults experiments, space travel vs. earth rotations…)”

        I don’t understand this: why are any of Newton’s laws ignored in any of these cases?

        4) A compass aligns itself with the Earth’s magnetic FIELD. The “N” end (the “north seeking pole”) points towards the north pole ALONG THE FIELD LINE. The other end (the “south seeking pole”) just points the other way!

        5) Your criticism of modern physics seems to ignore all the evidence! No experiments, just maths? What about CERN? What about the Hubble space telescope?

        Science (when it works properly) uses theory to make predictions, which are tested by observation and experiment: the two cannot be separated.

        When you then test the globe Earth model, based upon gravity and Newton’s laws of motion, many predictions can be made and tested. I’ll just give a few:
        – the return of comets;
        – the timings of lunar and solar eclipses;
        – the existence of Neptune (before its observation);
        – the motions of the tides;
        – navigation using astronomical readings based on the Earth as a globe;
        – the rotation of weather systems in opposite directions in the northern and southern hemispheres.

        In contrast, the flat earth theory can make NO testable predictions!

        I’m afraid, Tomassino, I don’t think that the Earth can be flat for you and a globe for me! ALL the evidence points to it being a globe.


  25. Brolyn March 28, 2017 at 8:06 pm Reply

    Boy all we need is someone to do this experiment and rub it in or world leaders faces. https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=U03hEsoFnvU If someone faced east with a compass standing 10 miles away from the North Pole, if he flew in a airplane in a perfectly straight line from that point with out turning right or left, he would slowly start facing south east./ same on a flat earth. BUT at the equator of a globe, you could face east or west and travel in a straight line all the way around the globe and stay facing east or west the entire time. BUT in the Southern Hemisphere/ Australia. Someone can prove to us if Australia is upside down or not. Budy needs an airplane and a compass, he simply needs to face directly east – keep in mind east and west are 90 degrees away from the North Pole. Then this guy needs to go on auto pilot and travel in a straight line with out turning right or left and he should slowly TRAVEL NORTH EAST. On a flat earth facing east or west and traveling in a straight line with out turning right or left will always force you to end up slowly facing south east.- or south west. I need someone smart to explain this better than I can. If air planes need to turn to the right to stay facing directly east /90 degrees away from the North Pole when flying around the world in the Southern Hemisphere that would prove the globe. If the pilot has to turn to the left to stay facing east in the Southern Hemisphere that proves the earth is flat. If you thought you had to turn the same direction to stay facing east in the Southern Hemisphere as you do in the northern hemisphere, that means your brain is trying to tell you the earth is no damn ball


  26. Tom March 28, 2017 at 10:05 pm Reply


    To make common sense of directions, we need to use common definitions that we can agree on. If something of sufficient mass is simply dropped, if will move in a downward direction, or down. Up is simply the opposite of down by 180 degrees.

    By these definitions, Australia is not upside-down.


  27. Brolyn March 29, 2017 at 6:30 am Reply

    please give me everything you got I need to learn how to explain this better. Sorry I should of said Australia is upside down from the North Pole ? Does that sound better ?


    • Tom March 29, 2017 at 11:56 am Reply


      In Australia, up and down are the same as all other places on earth, following these definitions above. For me, your revised comment doesn’t makes sense by using “up” and “down” in any manner. 😦


  28. Brolyn March 29, 2017 at 12:25 pm Reply

    But you are wrong it is not the same. In Canada you can see the North Star wen you face “up” in Australia/ the Southern Hemisphere. The North Star should not even be in the sky what so ever. What should I say? Help me out. People’s heads in Australia are facing 180 degrees away from the North Pole?


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