The AQUEDUCTS OF NAZCA Peru –
Ancestral Hydraulic Water Healing Wisdom
More than 1600 years ago, the inhabitants of the Nazca culture developed a system of puquios
or aqueducts that provided water throughout the year, not only for agriculture and irrigation
but also for domestic needs.
The aqueducts conduct the filtrations of the Aija, Tierra Blancas and Nazca rivers through
underground and uncovered sections. In the covered sections, they built helical section chimneys
every certain section (50, 100 and 120m), in order to maintain the trenches and load the aqueduct
with atmospheric pressure, maintaining the uniform flow regime, in order not to cause erosion
or sedimentation in the canal.
The walls of these fireplaces are lined with pebble stones, apparently laid without binder and
maintain their stability despite natural phenomena.
In addition, in the covered sections, they roofed the canal for which they used stone slabs and
finely placed Huarango slats. The construction of these covered sections suggests that they knew
underground topography techniques.
More pyramids can be found in South America, which was home to indigenous populations
like the Moche, Chimú and Incas. The Moche, who lived along the northern coast of what is now
Peru, built their pyramids of adobe, or sun-dried mud-bricks. The Huaca del Sol (or Holy Place
of the Sun) was almost 100 feet tall and built of more than 143 million bricks, while the Huaca
de la Luna (dedicated to the moon) was rebuilt multiple times. It took 20,000 workers 50 years
to build the pyramid, constructed from huge stones fitted together without mortar. The Incas,
Latin America’s last great indigenous civilization to survive, used the same building techniques
to construct their marvelous stone city, Machu Picchu, high in the Andes.
the early 17th century. In Peru, the indigenous Amerindian pre-contact population of around 6.5 million declined to 1 million by the early 17th century. The overwhelming cause of the decline in both Mexico and Peru was infectious diseases, such as smallpox, malaria, cholera and measles, although the brutality of the Encomienda also played a significant part in the population decline.
The encomienda was a Spanish labor system that rewarded conquerors with the labor of particular groups of conquered non-Christian people. The laborers, in theory, were provided with benefits by the conquerors for whom they labored, the Catholic religion being a principal benefit. The encomienda was first established in Spain following the Christian conquest of Moorish territories (known to Christians as the Reconquista), and it was applied on a much larger scale during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
100,000 locations of interest across the country, just 5,000 or so have been adequately studied on-site. Moreover, an even smaller number have been subjected to the sort of aerial observation that could reveal sights such as the Nazca Lines. But what had the ancient civilization who lived here been observing?
According to Dr. Ghezzi’s research, the positions of the 13 towers aligned almost perfectly with where the Sun would rise and set over the course of a year. That couldn’t be a coincidence, and it convinced the academic that the towers were there to observe the passing of the seasons.the position of the Sun as seen from the observation point will then tell you what time of year it is.So the 13 towers are, effectively, one big calendar.It meant that the Chankillo solar observatory was the earliest example of this kind of structure we’ve ever found. And not only that, but it’s also different from other solar observatories because it could tell the time throughout an entire year.
“Archaeological research in Peru is constantly pushing back the origins of civilization in the Americas,” Dr. Ghezzi told Yale News.Dr. Ghezzi also revealed that Chankillo is older than observatories found in Europe by about 1,800 years. It’s also roughly 500 years older than any similar building made by the Mayans.All the evidence suggests that there was a formal or ceremonial approach to that point and that there were special rituals going on there,” Professor Ruggles said. So that means that not just anybody could have wandered up to the observation point and noted the time of the year. That job would probably have been left to someone very powerful in the civilization.
Almost 100 feet above the sand, drones captured aerial footage of the ground below. And when archaeologists studied the resulting images, they discovered something that they weren’t expecting: traces of ancient geoglyphs carved into the rock many centuries ago.First emerging around 100 B.C., the Nazca were a people who once flourished in the south of Peru. Native to the valleys of the Ica River and the Rio Grande de Nazca, they were known for their advanced artistic and technological skills. And even today, long after their culture has disappeared, they are remembered in the place names of their former homeland.the Nazca were an agricultural society that entertained strange practices such as cranial manipulation – a technique used to deform a young child’s skull. They were nonetheless also considered sophisticated for their time. In fact, they constructed an aqueduct system that is still utilized today.Additionally, the Nazca forged beautiful pottery and wove complex, intricate textile patterns.
But it was their fascinating geoglyphs that would ensure them a place in history for centuries to come. Even though their civilization had disappeared come 750 A.D., Today, the floor of Peru’s Nazca Desert is crisscrossed with hundreds of markings known as the Nazca Lines. Covering almost 20 square miles, these designs were formed by carving shallow depressions into the ground. And while some take the form of seemingly endless lines stretching across the landscape, others are more awe-inspiring in nature.Among the figures formed by the Nazca Lines are over 70 depictions of animals, including a hummingbird, a monkey, a dog, a lizard and a jaguar.
Other patterns, meanwhile, are arranged to show various flowers and trees. However, these detailed images aren’t immediately visible to those who visit the Nazca Desert – for one deeply mysterious reason.the intricate designs of the Nazca Lines cannot be fully appreciated unless viewed from the air. And although some of the patterns can be seen from higher ground in the region, their nature has led many to speculate about whom they were created for.
Did the ancient people of Peru master flight long before the Wright brothers took to the skies?With the support of the U.S., the Peruvian authorities were able to hire Johny Isla, an archaeologist who has been studying the Nazca Lines since the 1990s. Together with the German Archaeological Institute’s Markus Reindel, Isla has spent decades attempting to document the fascinating geoglyphs of the Nazca Desert. , it was a culture even older than the one responsible for the Nazca Lines. In fact, they believe that these geoglyphs were created by the Nazca’s predecessors, the Topará and the Paracas,First emerging around 800 B.C., the Paracas culture thrived in the Andes mountains of Peru until around 100 B.C. Like the Nazca after them, they are known to have developed advanced skills in the field of water management.
Moreover, sophisticated ceramics and textiles have also been recovered from Paracas sites.In the 1920s Julio Tello, a pioneering archaeologist from Peru, began excavating in a region known as the Paracas Peninsula.Around half a century before the Paracas are thought to have disappeared from Southern Peru, a culture known as the Topará arrived in the region.https://www.digitalmeetsculture.net/…/a-recently…/
The Tupac Amaru Rebellion
There were two conquests of the Andes. The first was
when Francisco Pizarro came in 1532 and took the empire from the Inca Atahualpa. The second came when Spain decided to modernize its empire during the 1770s and 80s. Modernization meant increased taxation, and it meant taking work from residents of Cusco. Rebellion surged as a young leader Tupac Amaru and his wife Micaela struggled to make sense of their reality, which the Spaniards had
conquered not once, but twice.
Peruvian Indian revolutionary, a descendant of the last Inca ruler, Túpac Amaru, with whom
he was identified when he led the Peruvian peasants in an unsuccessful rebellion against Spanish
rule. Túpac Amaru II was a cacique (hereditary chief) in the Tinta region of southern Peru. He
received a formal Jesuit education but maintained his identification with the Indian population.
In 1780 he arrested and executed the corregidor (provincial administrator), Antonio Arriaga, on
charges of cruelty. This act led to the last general Indian rebellion against Spain, at first with
the support of some Creoles (Spaniards born in America). The revolt, which spread throughout
southern Peru and into Bolivia and Argentina, lost this support when it became a violent battle
between natives and Euro-White’s.
Túpac Amaru II and his family were captured in March 1781 and taken to Cuzco. After being forced to witness the execution of his wife and sons, he was mutilated, drawn and quartered, and beheaded. The revolution continued until the Spanish government issued a general pardon of the insurgents. An avid reader, Afeni Shakur was inspired to change her son’s name after something with a powerful meaning. According to a profile piece on the rapper and activist’s name on The Track Record, the first known Tupac
Amaru was the last indigenous monarch of Inca. Tupac Shakur’s mother originally named her son Lesane Parish Crooks. When he was a year old, she legally had Crooks’ name changed to Tupac Amaru Shakur. Tupac’s name means “shining serpent” in Inca, again referencing the native Serpent Wisdom of the Ancient Ones.