Facebook and Microsoft Are Laying a Giant Cable Across the Atlantic

So Why so Many Cables if we have satellites????

 

Dubbed MAREA—Spanish for “tide”—this giant underwater cable will stretch from Virginia to Bilbao, Spain, shuttling digital data across 6,600 kilometers of ocean. Providing up to 160 terabits per second of bandwidth—about 16 million times the bandwidth of your home Internet connection—it will allow the two tech titans to more efficiently move enormous amounts of information between the many computer data centers and network hubs that underpin their popular online services.

“If you look at the cable systems across the Atlantic, a majority land in the Northeast somewhere,” says Najam Ahmad, Facebook’s vice president of network engineering. “This gives us so many more options.”

From new FE Book Coming out Soon!

Satellites Don’t Exist

  1. Satellites aren’t used because they can’t carry terabytes of data for less than a billion dollars per communication line.
  2. The bandwidth available using a single fiber optic cable and a laser beam is much much greater than you can get from a single satellite radio channel. This is due to the higher frequency and shorter wavelength of light compared to microwaves. The higher the frequency, the greater the bandwidth.
  3. An undersea cable is a bundle many fiber optic cables. Consider each fiber cable as a channel. You can have more channels, each with a higher capacity, than you can build radio channels into a satellite.
  4. The uplinks and downlinks cost and putting the satellite in space is a costly.
  5. The delay for satellite communications would be around 255ms both uplink and downlink. For continuous traffic this not to a bad price to pay. But for burst traffic (like voice) you pay for the delay at each pause. The Rule of Thumb is 10MS per 1000 miles so Rule of Thumb to Europe on say TAT-8 would be about 75MS vs 510MS for satellite.
  6. Finally, you can fix a broken cable. Once you launch the satellite you don’t get a chance to fix it if it gets broke.

“Balloon Powered Internet for Everyone”

“Project Loon balloons float in the stratosphere, twice as high as airplanes and the weather. In the stratosphere, there are many layers of wind, and each layer of wind varies in direction and speed. Loon balloons go where they’re needed by rising or descending into a layer of wind blowing in the desired direction of travel. By partnering with Telecommunications companies to share cellular spectrum we’ve enabled people to connect to the balloon network directly from their phones and other LTE-enabled devices. The signal is then passed across the balloon network and back down to the global Internet on Earth,”

“Project Loon balloons float in the stratosphere, twice as high as airplanes and the weather. In the stratosphere, there are many layers of wind, and each layer of wind varies in direction and speed. Loon balloons go where they’re needed by rising or descending into a layer of wind blowing in the desired direction of travel. By partnering with Telecommunications companies to share cellular spectrum we’ve enabled people to connect to the balloon network directly from their phones and other LTE-enabled devices. The signal is then passed across the balloon network and back down to the global Internet on Earth,”

76.0

Patent US5093800 Global Positioning System Satellite Signal Simulator

This invention relates to electromagnetic wave transmitters, and more particularly, to a transmitter for producing an output signal which simulates an orbiting GPS (Gobal Positioning System) satellite. The present invention will have many application and should, therefore, not be limited to those disclosed herein and in the drawings. However, the invention has been found to be especially useful when employed in connection with a test transmitter for GPS receivers.

In the past, test transmitters for GPS receivers have been employed to provide data and equivalent doppler frequency for GPS receivers. Test transmitters for GPS receivers have been used as a method to reduce the cost associated with field tests. Unfortunately, such systems have been relatively complicated, and thus too expensive for practical commercial purposes. Accordingly, it is a principle object of the present invention to provide a relatively low cost GPS test transmitter while retaining high performance capability.

SUMMARY OF INVENTION Briefly, the present invention provides a new and improved apparatus for testing GPS receivers by simulating the signal and the equivalent doppler frequency of an orbiting satellite. The test transmitter apparatus includes a computer which contains all the simulated mission maneuvers and orbit parameters of the satellites, a monitor for indicating the parameters of the apparatus, a keyboard for manual operation of the apparatus, and a signal generator that receives and decodes the information from the computer to emulate the appropriate satellites.

 Microwave GPS Systems Are Ground Based

Since back in the 1940’s when the Russians developed the Over-the-Horizon (OTH) based radar systems, wireless communication has been possible from ground based systems.

The most common type of OTH radar uses ionospheric reflection. Given certain conditions in the atmosphere, radio signals broadcast up towards the ionosphere will be reflected back towards the ground. After reflection off the atmosphere, a small amount of the signal will reflect off the ground back towards the sky, and a small proportion of that will reflect back towards the broadcaster.

The high frequency radio waves used by most radars, called microwaves, travel in straight lines. This generally limits the detection range of radar systems to objects on their horizon.

f the target is above the surface, this range will be increased accordingly, so a target 10m (33ft) high can be detected by the same radar at 26km (16mi). Siting the antenna on a high mountain can increase the range somewhat, but in general it is impractical to build radar systems with line-of-sight ranges beyond a few hundred kilometers.

OTH radars use various techniques to see beyond that limit. Two techniques are most commonly used; shortwave systems that reflect their signals off the ionosphere for very long-range detection, and surface wave systems which use low-frequency radio waves. These systems achieve detection ranges of the order of a hundred kilometers from small, conventional radar installations.

For greater distances repeater stations are located to boost the signal along the horizon.

Simple observation will show you how there are cell towers everywhere now. On buildings, fake trees, antennas, towers, etc.  All are positioned to achieve greater distance from a higher position, just like the Loon balloons by Google are being used.

There are no satellites in space. There is no satellite triangulation of cell phone calls or GPS.

world-submarine-cable-map-980x459 fe-undersea-cables

Communication Cable Routes Only Are Laid East and West

Cable routes go East and West but not North and South around and through the Northernmost and Southenmost areas of Earth.  None of the many communication cables follow the shorter, easier to lay (over ice instead of on the ocean bed hundreds of feet deep) direct routes over the Antarctic and Arctic regions.

Satellites Don’t Exist I

According to NASA, there are some 1265 functioning satellites orbiting Earth to provide various functions such as military applications, GPS, communications, Earth tomography, weather predictions, asteroid/comet warnings, etc.

The average satellite allegedly in space is made up of carbon fiber, aluminum-beryllium alloy graphite, titanium, kevlar, glass, and sheet metal. Inside are batteries, computers, cameras and highly integrated electronic circuitry that operate the satellite. Extended off the satellite are photo-voltaic solar panels that capture sunlight to keep continuous power that protrude and extend up to 50 feet connected by extension rods. Solar panels are made of glass, silicon, rare earth materials, gold reflecting metal and special bonding cement.

These satellites are said to orbit the Earth some 22,500 miles up in space in the Thermopshere while traveling around Earth at a constant speed of 17,450 mph (23,000 ft./sec) to keep in geosynchronous orbit. With solar panels extended and deployed off the spacecraft would be ripped off its anchor at such speeds. (Think sticking your head out a window at 60 mph, then imagine over 100X more wind sheer!)

As noted above, temperatures in the Thermosphere reach over 3500 degrees Fahrenheit (2000 Celsius). This chart shows the actual melting/degradation temperatures of different metals. The only elements in the periodic table that can withstand 2000°C are carbon, niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, tungsten, rhenium, and osmium. Except for carbon, these metals are very, very heavy and are of course extremely conductive to heat and most are very ductile when heat treated meaning they bend and coil. Carbon even has the highest thermal conductivities of all known materials! So, if you want to cook someone very efficiently and quickly, there is nothing better than a space capsule made out of graphite.

5 thoughts on “Facebook and Microsoft Are Laying a Giant Cable Across the Atlantic

  1. semaj September 17, 2016 at 7:13 pm Reply

    What is a ‘satellite’ phone as I need to get one as lots of areas just in Cornwall cannot get a signal? How far out are these TV satellites and who put them there and how do they maintain their orbit and what happens if they go wrong? Do satellite dishes only work at one time of the day then as they all point in the same direction or is this due to the marvels of geostationary orbit? If so how many satellites are needed to cover all countries over a 24 hour period? Why is cable TV in the USA so huge and why lay all the cables in UK and Europe, are all the satellites now defunct? Why don’t any of the ISS supposed films show any satellites and who carries out space traffic control?

    Like

  2. semaj September 18, 2016 at 7:02 pm Reply

    How did those satellites get so far out and who did all this? How are they kept at that distance and position? Where did Wikipedia get all this info, was it NASA by any chance? Do not some people pay £400 for mere cell phones, the fools when they could have a ‘sat phone’ for the same price. How is the ISS doing its all gone very quiet, must give Tim a call see how he’s doing in mind control central!

    Like

    • SG Today September 18, 2016 at 9:38 pm Reply

      Semaj; Good – ask questions; then look for answers; preferably from unconnected sources. Check each one for actual evidence that can be cross-checked, verified, and/or tested. Be skeptical, and watch out for false prophets.

      Anyone can do this for themselves. Good luck; it can be invigorating and fun.

      Like

  3. semaj September 19, 2016 at 7:52 pm Reply

    SG thanks. I am still waiting for the scientific proof of space vacuum next to a non vacuum with no air tight barrier between!

    Like

    • SG Today September 19, 2016 at 11:46 pm Reply

      Semaj, I’m curious; do you know of any reason why this air/vacuum thing can’t happen, or maybe do you disbelieve this as a matter of personal opinion?

      Like

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